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Pathological theory, Epilepsy, Schizophrenia



                                     Literary works against Islam and Prophet Muhammad (Peace and Blessing of Allah be upon him) were being published through out 12th, 13th and mid fourteenth centuries. Writers were contesting in the fabrication of false stories, some of which are still exiting; the pathology theory is a leading one.

   As per the theory prophet had experienced some epileptic fits. Whenever he feels it, it was explained as a divine revelation. Muhammad described to Khadija that an angel appeared before him. Ricardo da Montre Croc. Sand Pedro, Waltherius, Gulbert of Nogent, Alexandre du Pont, Sigbert of gemblox are the medieval Chistian writers who gave currency to this fable. Some of them are so kind-hearted as to give scientific justification for the theory. Frank R Freemon, a neurosurgeon of Nashville(USA) wrote an article titled ‘A Differential diagnosis of the Inspirational Spells of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam’ in which he says regarding it “…psychomotor or complex partial seizures of temporal lob epilepsy….” But he himself admits the fact that his views “….are unproven and forever unprovable”(Jabal Muhammad Bauben, Image of the Prophet Muhammad in the west, the Islamic foundation, UK 1996, p.9).

   David Samuel Margoliouth Writes: ‘We have already seen reason for believing that Muhammad at sometime had epileptic fits’(David Samuel Margoliouth, Muhammad and the Rise of Islam 1995, pp. 85,86). But he cannot find any medical supports for the lie. He remarks…..’Some of the signs of severe epilepsy biting of the tongue, dropping what is in the hand, and gradual degeneration of the brainpower were wanting’ (Ibd p. 46).

   Margoliouth is actually exposed into a fence sitting posture. He dares to corroborate epilepsy but reality drags him back. He writes an article in the encyclopedia of religion and ethics, an extract of which is as follows ‘It is clear that he was a man of great physical strength, since his life as a tyrant(?) of Madina was spent in constant military expeditions, added to the cases of a rapidly increasing community, of which he was at once priest, legislator ruler and judge. Yet we never hear of his breaking down under the strain. The ‘fits’ seem to have been experienced only when they were required for the delivery for the revelations, and in case to have interfaced with his activities’ (Margoliouth, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 874-5).

   Margoliouth is of the opinion that, the fits of the prophet is artificial. He writes “….the phenomena accompanying such a fit may have suggested a form which could afterwards be artificially reproduced (Margoliouth, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, pp. 85, 86).
Even though, Margoliouth is unable to show any bit of proof, he is managing to argue. But it is totally inappropriate for an author like him. Bauben remarks: ‘By not providing any support for that reasoning and showing which medical experts thought Muhammad’s health was feeble, Margoliouth overlooks a crucial principle in academic scholarship supporting an argument with sound, authentic evidence.’ (Jabal Muhammad Bauben, Image of the Prophet, pp.60-1).

   Later, the most intricate psychological disorder named as schizophrenia was attributed to prophet after the publication of the book ‘Schizophrenia’ by Blueler in 1911. The Greek word ‘Schizo’ means ‘to split’ and phrera mind. Thus it denotes a state of mind with a feeling of failure.

   Since prophet lived in the light of history it is convenient to check the symptoms of the disease, with the life of Prophet. There are three factors causing schizophrenia, namely biological, psychological and sociological. Even though one devotes his life to microscopically study the entire life of prophet, he won’t be able to prove any event even suspected madness. But he was accused to be mad by the Makkahns. To argue something without ample evidence is a disease. The symptoms of this disease are seen in them and in medieval and modern polemists. Let us call them mad, but there is ‘method’ in it.

   Up to the age of forty, Muhammad (PBH) was wholeheartedly welcomed by Makkans. They named him Al-Ameen, the honest with the feeling of pride and tenderness. Sometimes, they appointed him as the mediator for solving their disputes. During the time of rebuilding the holy Ka’aba, there had been a dispute between two tribes as to who ought to lay the foundation stone. The dispute became more or less a combat. Finally, they decided to accept the first comer as a mediator. Fortunately, it was Al Ameen! Extremely sagacious and outstandingly far-sighted, he solved the dispute in a better way. He wanted to bring a piece of cloth, in which the stone was put. He told to catch either side by the two tribes he finally putting the stone. Had he been insane, would they have appointed him to the post? Do we have the habit of even speaking to the man in our countryside, who is suspected to be insane, after all?
We have seen mediaeval and modern writers puzzling. They want to paint insanity upon prophet, but historical evens dissuade them from doing so. Somehow their attitude is similar to that of the Arab opponents of Prophet’s time. Let us overhear a conspiracy of the ‘elite’ of Makkah.

   The Qur’an (the words of an epileptic man!) began to bewitch the hearts of people in Makkah. Whoever heard it reciting; either embraced Islam or acknowledged it to be divine. When the season of Hajj was nearer, The Makkahns feared that Muhammad (PBH) would utilize the chance for the propagation. So they decided to spread a slander about him. While the discussion was to tarnish him on board, somebody suggested that they could introduce him as an astrologist. Waleed bin Mugheera(1):, the chief commander retorted  that “Nay! We have heard the words of astrologist”. Let us call him mad”, said someone, “he is not mad, we have seen mad men. No sign of madness is seen in him’. Crossed Waleed. “Then, let us call a poet”. “He is not a poet”. We know all branches of poetry. What he says is not poetry” Waleed reiterates. Then the crowd said, “Let us call him a black artist. “He is not a black artist. We knew the necromancy. He does not practice any bit of it:”. The mass angrily asked the leader. “Then what are we going to call him” Indeed there is sweetness in his verses. Its root is fathomless and branches are plenty of fruits. Whatsoever you allege on him, every thing would be proven false. So, call him a magician making breaches between father and children, husband and wife, elder and younger (This conversation was reported later when they embraced Islam).

   This incident unambiguously clarifies that, even the strong opponents of Prophet had no bit of evidence to allege madness upon him, even they unanimously brooded over it round and round through they were extremely bend on alleging it. The words of an epileptic (Schizophrenia) man may, mostly, be vague and unclear. Since they are broken words the listener cannot grasp a meaning out of them. Sometimes he may cry out losing self-control. Or, he may be as dump as statue, being unable to speak. A lunatic man may not be punctual, strict and fast in his dress, food, sleep and other routines. The very look of them would be frightening and devilish. Utterly depressed, he would be an introvert. He will have auditory hallucinations and delusions. He will stay aloof from the social mainstream.
But, even a research fellow who waged two worlds like this cannot show any of the referred symptoms, even after the microscopic surgery of Prophet’s entire life. He was mild in views, fluent in words and bold in deeds. Though lived in the sea of wines, never tasted a drop, though paramount beauty was he, never approached a harlot, though an orphan, well nurtured by grandfather and uncle.

   He was the nucleus of Arabian life. He took part with them in the pastoral fields, business groups, in markets, in caravan (2), in civil war like ‘Harbul fijar’(3) and in other constructive works. He was in the mainstream of Arabian life except that he didn’t worship idols. For his food, it was systematic. He never devour greedily as an uncivilized does, never filled his belly, never slept the whole night. He did all with determination. His strong will war-oriented. Within twenty three years he created a vast empire. Even the cruelest enemies became his trust worthy admirer. He was a sanctuary for the downtrodden, a place for the under dogs, a garden for the blacks.

   (1) Walid ibn Mughira was the chief of the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraish Tribe. His clan was responsible for warfare, and he was wealthy. These two factors combined to make him proficient in warfare.

   (2)caravan: A group of people with vehicles that are pulled by horses who are travel    ling together, especially across the desert.

   (3) Harbul fijar : A fight took place in a forbidden month. The Qais tribe imposed the war on the Quraysh illegally. So it was called Harbul Fijar or illegal war.

   It has already been emphasized that, polygamy is a special provision to meet a particular condition. Islam protects these redundant widows under the loving roofs of a husband in these circumstances. It can be avowedly stated that such widows with orphans would be ten times prepared to be a second wife than to be thrown in to the rough waste bin of life, or living as ‘flesh merchants’ being addressed as whores or harlots. Islam solves the problem the better, creating no chance for brothels but others look puzzled.



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