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Ckvemapw hmfpw

sXnmcW Bhiyan

Ckvemw {]NcnXp hmfpsImmsWv Hcp {]NmcWw HmdnbenpIfn Nne Dbnnpv. ]n¡mev Ckvemw hncpXbpsS av ]nSnh AtXp ]nSnpIbpw sNbvXnpv. bYmYn Ncn{X kXytfmSv {Iqcamb kao]\amWnXv. hkvXpX Adnbm {ianmsXtbm a\x]qhw hnkvacntm D Cu {]NmcWn\v ]pXnb kaqln \ne\n¸nmXmbnpv. Fmepw ]gb ]hnbn a\xkpJw ImWph CXv CSnsS Bhnmdpv.

temIv 20 iXam\tmfw hcp apkvenw P\kwJybpsS ]nn hmfmWpm bncpXv F {]NmcWw Gsd auVyamWv. abn Ckvemans {]mYanI ImeLhpw aZo\bn AXns cmw Lhpw Jeo^amcpsS aqmw Lhpw Ncn{Xw \apv hnhcnp Xcppv .kIeam\ kmlfpw kuIcyfpw HnWnb {]XntbmKnIfpw i{Xpfpw kPohhpw A{Iamkhpambncp Hcp Npp]mSn, Bfpw klIcWhpanmh kmbp[ kacw \Sn Ckvemw hfn Fp ]dbpXv F{Xam{Xw hnUvVnamWv. sNdnb \yq\]w `qcn]ns\Xnsc hmsfSpm \njvImknXcmhpXv Bcmbncnpw Fv a\nemm AanX _pnsbmpw Bhiyan.

hyamb HcmZi kuIpamcyXbpsS {]Imi\n\v km[nmh kzw A\pbmbnIfn Ir{Xnaamb GtIm]\apmpXn\mbn Hcp i{Xphns\ I¸npIbmWv. "aplZv \_n(kz)bpw A\pbmbnIfpw hmfpambn A{Iaw \Sn m]nXpw {]NcnnXpamWnkvemw aXw, AXp{]Imcw hmfpw hodpambn apkvenwI Cpw \ne\n¡pIbmWv, BbXn\m Ahscbpw AhcpsS aXsbpw \maIWw' FmWnXneqsS ]ecpw A\pbmbnIsf t_m[nnm {ianpXv. CkvemanI Ncn{Xn ImWmhp Nne kw`hsf AX\nhmcyamnb ]mefn \npw ths]Spn Hcm{IaW ]cn]mSn F \nehXcnnpIbmWnq. hmfpsImv m]np ASn\v A]mbpv am{XamWpmhpI Fdnbmhscmpambn cpn CkvemanI {]t_m[I.

Cybn BZyambn Ckvemw ISph tIcfn ]cnanXcmb BfpIfmWv {]t_m[\n\v t\XrXzw \InbXv. Ign 14 \qmn\nSv Cv \apdnbmhp henb kwJybmbn AXv DbXn\v ]nn hmfpw kachpambncpp FXv tIcfns kmwkvImcnI Ncn{Xadnbp Bpw AwKoIcnm km[npIbn. Xtiobcmb P\XbpsS kvt\lhmbv]pI t\SnsbSpm\pw amXrIm tbmKyhpw kZmNmc]chpamb PohnXw ImgvNshm\pw km[npshXmWhcpsS hnPbw. tIcfns CcpfS kmaqly kwhn[m\n kvt\lnsbpw ]mckv]cynsbpw {]Imiw ]cm\m bXmWv AhcpsS hnPbn\p \nanambnoXv.

1921se ae_m kacns ]men tIdn hnhcġv {]mapJyw \In apkvenwIsf Bt]npsImv Ipamc\mim FgpXnb JWvV ImhyamWv Zpch. AXnetlw tIcfnse Ckvemw aX hnizmknIfpsS h\hns ImcWw hnhcnppv. AXns BibanXmWv. "PmXobamb D\oNXzfpsS t]cn ]o UnXmhbnembncp P\X Ckvemans kmtlmZcy kuIpamcyX Zintm AXn BIrjvScmhpIbmbncpp. lnamebw Ibdntbm IS IStm hhcmbncpn ChnSps apkvenwI' (Bibw: Zpch).

Ckvemanse kmtlmZcynsbpw am\hobXbpsSbpw kucyamWv tIcfnse apkvenw hwi h\hn\v \nanambsXv Ipamc\mim Xs apkvenw shdnbpsS {]IS\n\nSbn ]dpt]mhpIbmWpmbXv. Ncn{Xw ]Tnm {ianhcpw Ckvemw shdnbpsnepw bmYmYy t_m[tmsS Ckvemans\ hnebncpnbhcpw Ckvemans hfbpsS clkyw hmfmbncpp F hmZKXnsb Xndbm \n_nXcmbnpv. Ckvemans {]NmcWns bYmY ImcWw AXns am\hobXbpw kmtlmZcy hpamWv Fv Ah hyamnbnpv.

Ckvemans {]NmcW Ncn{Xw hnhcnp Hcp _rlmb {Kw k tXmakv BtWmUv cNnnpv. AXn Ckvemans {]NmcWn\v klmbIamb kmwkvImcnI kmaqly kmlNcyw Atlw hnhcnppv. "Ckvemw {]t_m[\hpw {]NmcWhpw' F Xs ]pkvXIn hmfmbncpp CkvemanI {]t_m[\n apJyw F hmZs Atlw JWvVnncnpp.

almmKmn FgpXpp: "P\ efpsS lrZbmcfn \nhnhmZw B[n]Xyw ]p enb hynsbpdnv IqSpXednbm {ianp. Ames DX PohnX hnPbns ]nn hmfmbncpn Fv F\nv aptmfpw t_m[yw hncnpp. {]hmNIs emfnXyhpw ]caamb hnizmkhpambncpp, hmfmbncpn Fmns\bpw AhcpsS apnsenXpw apgph XSʧsfbpw AXnPohnm klmbnXpw' (bwKv Cy, 1924 sk]vXw_ 16).

aX{]NmcWn\pw {]t_m[\n\pw kzoIcnt ssienbpw amKhpw JpB hyamnbnpv. AXv t\cs kqNnnXmWv.(Ckvemanse [manI hyh F teJ\w ImWpI) Ckvemans\bpw apkvenwIsfbpw sXncnnm\p IpnXamb {iafpsS `mKamWv Acw Ip{]NmcW. Fm A\nhmcyamb Ln kmbp[ kacw \Snpv. AXn\v AXntXmb ]mefpapmbncpp.

CkvemanI \nbaġXoXambn AXns t]cntem kapZmbns t]cntem Bscnepw Bbp[saSpnpsn AXn\h am{XamWpchmZnI. As\ sNph ]e ZpjvSemtmsSbpw {]hnnpmhmw. AXv]t, GsXnepw Hcp aX hn`mKns {]tXyIXbmhWsan. aXns {]mamWnI ]n_etam kaqlnse BZcWobamb aXt\XrXzns ]npWtbm AwKoImctam D Hcm{IaWhpw Ctmgpw \Spn. Bscnepw sNp sXns t]cn Ckvemw aXhpw JpB\pw apkvenwIfpw sXncnsSppshn Acm AXn \np hnp\n¡pIbmWv thXv. ham\ Imev \psS hnip aXs klmbnm km[np {][m\amsbmcp hgnbmWXv.

hmsfSppXv \ioIcWn\mWtm. PohnIfpsStbm sNSnIfpsStbm \ioIcWn\ a\pjy \ntZinsnpXv. PohnXns hyXykvXamb Lfn Bhiyw hcp Hcp]IcWw F \nebnemsX hmfpw Inbpw Ckvemapambn _sSpn Am\p {]tbmK ISp A]cm[amWv.

hmfpsImp {]tIm]\an Fv am{Xa, kuP\y sImp {]tem`\hpan. Fpw IehdbnmsX \Im km[np {]] \mY\n \np {]Xn^ehpw Ahs klmbhpamsX Hcp Xcnep {]tem`\hpw Ckvemw {]NmcW amKamnbnn. kmnI klmbfpw `uXnI kuIcyfpw \In {]NmcWn\v t\XrXzw \Ip aXta[mhnIfpw \psS \mn hfsc app Xs aX{]t_m[\w \Snhcppv. Fnpw AXns\m hym]Iamb kzm[o\w Ckvemw t\Snbnpv FXmWv A\p`hw.

Cybnse CkvemanI hfv ]nn hmfmsW hmZs \ninXambn hnainp sImp kzman hnthIm\s {]kvXmhw {itbamWv."aplZob `mcXobsc IogSnbXv ASnashpw ]mhġpw Hcp tamN\ambnmW\p`hsXv. As\bmWv \psS BfpIfn Ansemv aplZobcmbXv. AsXmw hmfpw Xobpw sImv t\SnbXmsWv IcpXpXv {`mns ]mcayamWv' (hnthIm\ kmlnXy kkzw: `mKw: 3, 186187).

{]tIm]\ns hgnbneqsS a\ns\ kzm[o\nm\pw BZi {]Xn_Xbphcm m\pw km[npIbn. AXps]mse Xs {]tem`\ns hgnbneqsS a\kv IogSnbm D]m[nIfpsS e`yX\pkcnv am{Xta kvt\lhpw {]Xn_Xbpw ImWm\mhpIbpq. Ckvemw a\pjycn sNepp kzm[o\w khtXmpJamWv. Hcp kqW hyhbmbXn\m AXnt\mSv BmYamb {]Xn_X ]pep A\pbmbnIsfbmWXv krjvSnpXv. AXn\p {]] \mY\n {]Xobpw Ahs amKnep AWhpw D]m[nbmn A`uXnIamb kzm[o\amWnkvemw eyampXv. AhnsS \mSyn\pw \ncmkn\pw {]knbn.

sXnmcW Bhiyan

hnip JpB\nsebpw \_nhN\fnsebpw Nne ]cmai sXmbn {]Ncnn ]e tI{fpsSbpw eyw Ckvemw apkvenw hncpXbmbncpp. HmdnbenpIfpw AhcpsS Nphcp]nSnv \onbhcpamWXns ]nn. bYmYn Acw hN\ _mlyambns hyamb Bib {]Imi\w \Sppv. tIheamb _ hntOZ\n\p Blzm\tam AklnjvWpX hftem A AhbpsS eyw. kXyhnizmknIfpsS hnizmk kwcWn\pw CkvemanI kaqlns hynXzw \ne\n¡pXn\pambnmWv B \ntZifpmbXv. GXm\pw hN\ DZmlcWn\v {inpI:

"kXyhnizmknIsf IqSmsX AhnizmknIfmb BfpIsf kXyhnizmknI Dan{XfmcpXv. As\ sNp ]w AXv Amlphns klmbn\v ]pdmWv; \n kpc tXSpIbsæn (BWnXv). Amlp \nġv Ahs insbpdnv apdnbnv \Ipp. AmlphntemWv (\nfpsS) aSw' (Bibw: BepCwdm: 28).

kXyhnizmknItfmSv kulrZw \Snv AhcpsS aX]camb hnjbfn CSs]p Ahsc Ipgnemm\p aZo\bnse PqXmcpsS {ian \nv csSpXn\mbn Bhiysv AhXcn kqamWnXv. Cs\ aX]cambn \mi\jvSfpmIp IqpsIpI {inpI FXv hnizmk kwcWns `mKamWv. AXv BZi {]Xn_XbphcpsS kao]\amWv. Ckvemw hnizmknItfmSmhiysSpXv kpZrVhpw hyhpamb hnizmkhpw IahpamWv. adnv AhnizmknIfmb BfpIsf sXmpIqSm XonqSm FXn\Yan.

Ccnep kqfpsSsbmw hniZoIcWfn AhbpsS kmlNcy]camb A\nhmcyX hyamsnpv. am\pjnIamb klhnnt\m CSs]Sent\m kXyhnizmknsb hnepIb Ahsbmpw. hnizmkns ssNX\yhpw kucyhpw \jvSsSpmXncnm\p Blzm\amWm kq \SpXv. kmlNcyns ISp {]XnIqemhbn t]mepw aX]camb tahnemkhpw hynXzhpw \jvSsSpp Nmw `qjWa.

"hnizmknIsf \n \nsf IqSmsX (I]S hnizmknIsf) DpInI Adnbm\nShcp IqpImcmcpXv. \nġv \miapmm km[np Hchkchpw Ah ]mgmpIbn. \n A\p`hnp hnjaXI Ahv {]nbcamWv. AhcpsS \mhpIfneqsS AhcpsS i{XpX {]ISambnpv. AhcpsS lrZbmcfnse CujyX hfsc KpcpXcamWv. \nġv \mw ZrjvSm hyamn Xnpv. \n Nnnphscn. Fs \n Ahsc kvt\lnpIbmtWm? Ah \nsf Hpw kvt\lnpn, \n JpB\n apgph hnizknphct? (Ahtcm) \nsf Ipapnbm Ah ]dbpw, R hnizknnpv. AhsctmsebphtcmsSmw tNm \ntfmSp CujyX ImcWw AhcpsS hncepI Ah ISnpXmWv. (Fm) \n AhtcmSv ]dbpI. \nfpsS tZjyhpambn \n acWstmfq. \nbw Amlp lrZbnepsXmw Adnbph\mWv. \nġv h KpWhpw e`nm AXhsc ZpxJnnpw. \nġv h ZpcnXhpw Fnbm AhcXn AXoh kpjvSnbphcmIpw. (AXn\m) \n a ssIsmpIbpw `nbphcmhpIbpw sNbvXm AhcpsS bmsXmcp hn[ IpX{fpw \nġv tZmjambn `hnpIbn. \nbw Amlp Ah {]hnp sXpw kkqvaw Adnbph\mWv' (Bibw: BepCwdm: 118120).

kXyhnizmknItfmSv ITn\amb shdppw i{XpXbpw AhsXnsc Ahkcw ]m ncnpIbpw sNbvXhcmb I]S hnizmknIfpsS \ne]mSpI Cu kqfn \nv hyamWv. Acmcmb BfpIġv kXyhnizmknIfpsS clkyfpw kzImcyXIfpw Adnbm\nS \IcpsX Hcp IcpX \S]SnbmWnXv. XpSp kqn I]S hnizmknI Ahcnse t\Xmhmb A_vZpmln_v\p D_ns t\XrXzn DlvZv bp kabv sNbvX h\m]camb \ne]mSv kqNnnppv. aZo\sb A{Ianm\mbn h aqhmbnctmfw hcp tk\sXnsc {]Xntcm[n\ndnb apkvenw ssk\nIcn A_vZpmln_v\p D_ns \S]Sn Bibpgw krjvSntptam F Ah hscbpmbn. ]t, Ah\pw Ahs A\pbmbnIfpamh [ocambn aptdpIbmbncpp. Npcpn NXnbpsSbpw ]IbpsSbpw ]cymbambnohsc amn\npI F kmam\y \ne]mSv am{XamWo kqfneqsS \ntZinsncnpXv.

kXyhnizmknIsf kvt\lw \Snpw kulrZ hebnemnbpw BIjnv A\pkcW ioentesnv kXyhnizmkn \nIm\p {iahpw AhnizmknIfn Nne \Snbncpp. AXn\m Acw kmlNcyspdnv JpB apdnbnv \Inbnpv.

"hnizmknIsf, \n AhnizmknIfmb BfpIsf A\pkcnppshn Ah \nsf (AXneqsS) Ckvemw aXn \npw ]ndtImv aSpw (aX `rjvScmnopw). As\ \n ]cmPnXcmbnocpXmWv' (Bibw: BepCwdm: 149).

aX]cambn \mintev \bnp cq]nep Nmw Dt]nWsaXv ASap Hcp kaqlns ioeambncnWsa \ntZiw ]ptcmKa\]camWv. ImcWw Hcp aXkaqlw F, atXXc IqmbvaIfpw AhcpsS kzImcyXIfpw Xm]cyfpw A]ISsSpItbm A]lcnsSpItbm sNpXns\Xnsc Pm{Khmbncnpw. AXv am{Xta ChnsSbpw ImWppq.

kXyhnizmknIsf kw_nnStmfw AhcpsS lrZbw \naeambnoXn\m Bscpdnpw Ahv tamiamb [mcWbpmbncpn. Fmhcpw Xsftmse KpWImwnIfpw kZptiyaphcpw BbncnpsaXmbncpp AhcpsS [mcW. AXn\m hnizmknIfmbnocpXn\v apv Ahcpambpmbncp kn kzoIcnncp \ne]mSv XpScpIbmbncpp. Fm AhnizmknIfmb Ames P\XbpsS CujyXbpw shdppsamw AXnITn\ambncpp. Ahcpambn clky ]nSpXpw `mhnsbpdnv N \SpXpw A]ISamWv hcppI FXn\m AXv \ntcm[npIbmWpmbXv.

Ahcpambn `uXnI hnjbfn Bhiyamb CS]gIen\v hntcm[apmbncpn. \_n (kz) X h^mmhp kabv AhnSps ]Sbn Hcp PqXhym]mcnbpsS hiw ]WbnembncppshXv CtXmSv tNv hmbnpI.

km[mcW IqpIm F AYa Bbn ]dnp "_nXzm\'n\pXv. B ]Zw kqNnnpXv Xs AXoh clky hsc hyamsSp hn[nep kzImcyfn {]tXyIambn CSs]SpXn\v kzmX{yw e`np IqpImc FmWv.

]pdsa i{XpX {]ISnnmXncnpIbpw apkvenwIsXnsc bpn AWn\ncpIsbmpw sNmsX AIv IpSnIbpambn Ignbphcmb P\Xsb Fs\bmWv hnizknpIbpw AhcpsS amKZi\w kzoIcnpIbpw sNpI? _mlyamb BIjI kao]\w \nanw bpn Acmsc IqsS IqpXns\pdnv hsc kXyhnizmknI \_n(kz)tbmSv kwkmcnXv ImWmw. Acmcpambp _w tZmjIcambmWv _m[npI FXpdmWtm.

"Amlphnepw Ay\mfnepw kXyambn hnizkn P\Xsb Amlphnt\mSpw Ahs ZqXt\mSpw i{XpX {]ISnnphsc kvt\lnphcmbn ImWm Atv km[ya. Ah kzw amXm]nXmtfm km\tfm ktlmZctfm IpSpw_tfm Bbncpmepw' (Bibw: A apPmZe: 22).

kXyhnizmknIsf kw_nnStmfw AhcpsS kvt\l`mP\fmWv Amlphpw Ahs ZqXcpw. AXv AhcpsS kXyhnizmkns tXamWv Xm\pw. AXn\m Xs AhtcmSp i{XpX BcpsS `mKv \nmbmepw hnizmknXv Aklyambncnpw. kzw t\Xmhns\bpw t{]a`mP\sbpw A]ISsSpm\pw AhaXnm\pw {iaw \SphtcmSv kvt\l_w \ne\nm km[npIbnsöXv a\pjy{]IrXns kzm`mhnIXbmWv. hnizmkhpw BZchpw kvt\lhpw F{Xam{Xambncnptam AXn\\pkrXambncnpw kao]\ns ITn\ emLhXz.

Amlphnsbpw XncpZqXcpsSbpw ]hn{XXbpw alXzhpw AhaXnp \ne]m sSSpphtcmsSms Cu \ne]msSSpmt\ hnizmknv km[nq. Fm i{XpX ]p epItbm Ahkcft\zjnv AklnjvWpX ImWnpItbm sNm kpa\kvIcmb BfpItfmSp kao]\n\v Ckvemw hnetsSpnbnn.

amCZm kqdnse 51mw kqw, apwXln\x kqdnse BZy kq XpSnbhbnsemw hPnm\mhiysnp Nmsfmw shdpw kXy\ntj[ns t]cnembncpn FXn\v B kqfpsS AhXcW ]mefpw AhbpsS {]XymYfpw hyamppv. ImcyImcWklnXw kXyhnizmkn\v \yq\X hcpp {]hWXbn \nIp \n¡m\p s]cpam䨫fmWXn {]Jym]nnpXv. AXmIs ImcyImcWklnXw BWvXm\pw. AXn\m Xs ASap aX kaql cq]oIcWns ASnm\ D]m[nIfmbn am{Xta Ah a\nemtXpq.

aX]cambXpw aX \ntZifpXpamb hnjbfn kulmnsbpw IpSpw_ _ԯnsbpw t]cn AgpsImgp coXnimkv{Xw kzoIcnpXv hnizmknbpsS AS ]qWXsXncmWv. aX]camb Hcp NSn \n_\Isfmm nXnv Ahnizmknv ]mfnw hlnm km[nn. AXpt]mse amcpsSsbnepw aXmIamb Hcp NSn AXns D]m[nIsfmnv kXyhnizmknv ]sSpm\pw km[nn. CXv khmwKoIrXamb Hcp \ne]mSmWv.

AXymhiyambn hcp Lfn bpn\v A\paXn \IsnpXmWv. AXv \mKcnI kaqln Hc\nhmcyXbmbn Xonpv. Ckvemans\ kw_nnStmfw AXv eyanSp kaql krjvSnn\v kzoIcnp hcp kpXmcy hgnIfn {]Xnknbpmhptm AXns\Xnsc {]Xntcm[ \nbafhXcnnsnpv. Hcp bpns kzm`mhnItam AmtXm Bb hyXykvX Lfn AXn\\pkrXamb \ne]mSpI kzoIcntnhcpw. Hmtcm Lnepw apkvenw t]mcmfn hyamb \ntZi kzoIcnm _m[y\mWv. Acw hnhcWfmWv a\x]qhw sXncnnsSpXv.

Hmtcm \ntZinsbpw kmlNcys AhKWnpXmWv Cu A_ [mcWv ImcWamhpXv. bphpambn _s kwib ZqcoIcWhpw hkvXpXm]camb hnhcWhpw "Ckvemapw bphpw' F teJ\n hmbnpI.

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