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Xo{hhmZw

`oIchmZw      eyw Fv?

\ne]mSv   

  `cWIqS `oIcX

km{amPyXz `oIcX      hIt`Z
{]Xn`oIcX   

  Fs\?

CcI

Xo{hhmZns ]cymbamb `oIchmZamWnhnsS N sNpXv. `oIchmZsasdnbp tmgmWv AXns\ CkvemanI ]cnt{]yn t\mn ImWpXn\v IqSpX kuIcyapmhpI. hfsc koWamWnXv. AXns coXnimkv{Xhpw {]tbmKhpsamw Imepjyw am{XamWv. temIv \SXpw \SpXpamb kw`hfpsS ASnm\n Hcp \nKa\nsemt\ AXns \nhN\ns hnjbn \apv km[nppq. hnjbw a\nempXn\v Hcp \nhN\ns A\nhmcyX Dsv tXmpn. AXncphn AklnjvWpXbpw ]cn[nhn ]]mXhpw kzmYXbpw Zptamlhpw \nanw kzoIcnp {Iqchpw `oXnXhpamb \b\ne]mSpIfpw Ahsb klmbnepw \ymboIcnepw Fmw `oIchmZ]cw XsbmWv.

Hcp AcpXmbvabpsS {]mtbmKnIX t]mse Xs AXns\ \ymboIcnepw AXns\ klmbnepw A`ni]vXambXmWv. klmbnIfpsSbpw \ymbmcpsSbpw am\knIamb ]n pW A{Iansb IqSpX A{Ianbpw \oNs\ AXn\oN\pamnopsaXmWv ]mTw. AXn\m IrXys `oIc XmWvVhambpw klmbnpXpw \ymboIcnpXpw `o IchmZambpw thXncnmhpXmWv. kam[m\tmsS Pohnm\p a\pjymhImisbpw kpenXambn \ne\n¡p kmaqly kmlNcysbpw \n l\npsXms `oIcX XsbmWv.

eyw Fv?

`oIchmZnIfpsS ey Hcnepw kmaplyamb am\w t\Smdn. XnIpw kpNnXamb cmjv{Sob kmnI A[oiXz Xm]cyfmbncnpw AXns ]nnepmhpI. D]cnhambXpw BIjIXzapXpamb ap{ZmhmIyfpmhmsanepw BXynIambn kzmYXbnemWXns thcpI ImWm\mhpI. kaqlnse Hcp hn`mKnt\m `qcn`mKnt\m thn hmetsSpv XymKw sNpXmbp \mSyamWhpm hpI. cmPyw XIcpp, aXw XIcpp XpSnb s]mXpkzoImcyamb hnlzeXI s]cpnpImn AwKoImcw t\Sm\h {ianpw. ]t, BXynIambn AhcpsS eyw kzmY]cambncnpw. kmaqly kmlNcyn \npw \mKcnI ]cnkcv \npw BthinXamb GXv hn[nep kzmYXbpamImw AXv. A[nImc tI{oIrXamb ham\ kmaqly taemfXzns CSpnb temIp \nmWnXv apJyambpw ey \nbnpXv. AXn\m Xs ]e cmjv{Sfpw CXn\v kpcamb \nhN\ \InbXv ImWmw. AYhm eyw {][m\ambpw A[nImc cmjv{SobamWv. cmjv{SobsaXv ham\ Imev ]Whpw ]Zhnbpw t\Sm\pw _elo\XI ]q oIcnm\pap]Icnp Hmw Xcw D]m[nbmWv. AXn\m cmjv{Sobsa {]tbmKw Xs CXc kzmYXIsfbpw {]Xn\n[m\w sNpXmWv. IncoSw shnsænepw knwlmk\nencpnsænepw IpdmfpIfpsS a\n hoc\mbI\mhms\nepw km[npatm Fv NnnphpansXmcp hgnbmWv. Npcpn km{amPyXz inI {]Xy cmjv{Sob ta[mhnn\pw Amh hoc]pcpj ]Zhnpw apamWnsXms \SpXv Fv a\nemm\mhpw.

\ne]mSv

kzbw ]mizh¡cnsSp Hcp Xcw \ne]mSmWv Xo{hhmZnIfn ImWpXv. ^mjnkns B {]iwkm]camb BZin\v kam\amWv Xo{hhmZns BZimSndbpw. kzw {]h\sfbpw \ne]mSpIsfbpw ]pWyhXvIcnpI, AXv kmmXvIcnpXn\mbn Fpw sNpI Fp hm AhnsS Fpw \oXnbpw \ymbhpw {Iahpw A\nhmcyhpambncnpw. tNmZyw sNsSm, A{]amZnXzw Nms t\Xmfpmhmw. Hcp {]hmNIs tdmfn B[nImcnIXtbmsS (?) A\pbmbnIfn Bthiw Ipn\ndpI hgn t\Xmhpw ]mnbpw ]dbpXn\pdw ImWm\pw t\mm\pw km[nm hn[w A\pbmbnI hnt[bh¡cnsncnpw. ]TnXpw AdnXpw ioenXpw Xncpm\pw ambvm\pw adm\pw t\Xmhv ]dm ]n s adphmn.

Cu Ah t\cs IncpXv ^mjnpIfnemWv. lnvetdm aptmfn\ntbm am{Xambncpn ^mjnpI. kam\\ne]mSpIsfSphscms B t]cn\v Alcmbncnpw. sNdnb Hcp \yq\]n\v Bbp[hpw AYhpw \In {]NWvVamb {]Nmc thebpw Nmc{]h\hpw \Sn `qcn]n\pta ASnaens \bw kzoIcnpI FXmWv ^mjnv coXnimkv{Xw. ^mjnkn\v AXntXmb AYm\Yfpapv. \qdp iXam\w IrXyamb Hcp Xpe\a CXv. adnv `qcn]n\pta AhImiw m]nm [rjvScmb \yq\]sbmWv lnvedpw aptmfn\nbpw D]tbmKsSpnbXv.

Fm \apnSbn AdnbsSphcmb Xo{hhmZnI Hcp ]SnIqSn apnemtWm Fv tXmntmhpIbmWv. AYhm A[nImcsbpw `qcn]sbpw AXnPbnm\mhpsa hymtamlw hfpIbmWnh. t\Xmhnsbpw tI{nsbpw amkvac `mhap hmKznemkn, ]cnWnXn BtemNnmsX FSppNmSm A\pbmbn ]m IsSpsncnpp. AXn\m Xs lnve A]w t\Sn \inp. ChnsS t\saXv A{]XonXhpw \ne\n¸nmXpamWv. AXn\m Xs XnI \jvShSw XopIbmWv F {]ISamsbmcp hyXymkapsp am{Xw.

`cWIqS `oIcX

`oIcXIfn AXncqhpw A{]Xntcm[yhpamWv `cWIqS `oIcX. `cWhKw kzw cmjv{Snse P\tfmSp ImWnp {IqcXI, Ab cmjv{StfmSp ImWnp {IqcXI Fns\ cp Xcn `cWIqS `oIcX {]XysSppv. ASnm\]cambn D]cnkqNnn cmjv{Sob ZpjvSempIfmbncnpw AXn\v ]nn. \nmc ImcW ]dpw krjvSnpw \ncmbp[cmb BfpIfpsS ta A[nImc hmgvN \SpIbmWnXns coXn. Ipmtcm]Ww \Snbpw IcpX \nbafpsS ad]nSnpw knhnenbmsc ]oUnnpXv Hcp `cWIqS kwkvImcambn hfp hnpv. D]cnhyamnbt]mse ^mjnv coXnimkv{Xns XWen IqSpX ]nSnp \n¡m\mhptam Ft\zjnpIbmWv `cWhKw.

`cWhKns PmXobtam hKobtam {]mtZinItam Bb sshImcnI `mhs Xpey kao]\mcmb ]ucmcn IqSpX cqamm\pw AhnSbn hoc ]ucpj]w t\Sm\pw CXphgn km[npsah IWpIqpp. hKobhpw hwiobhpw `mjm]chpw {]mtZinIhpamb IpSne NnI ^e{]Zambn D]tbmKsSpnbXns s]mp IYI \ap\p`hat. Hcp \yq\]s sshImcnIambn {`mmthicmn \Sp hKobamb {]hWXIġv hfw \Ip `cWIqS kao]\w Cybn Ctm cqambn \ne\n¡ppv FXmWv bmYmYyw. Hcp d^dnbpsS tdmfn t]mepw {]XysSm\mhmsX ]qWambpw ]w tNcpp FXmWv, ]eXnsbpw _mn ]{Xw thZ\mP\IamnbXv.

{Iahpw kam[m\hpw m]nm\pw \ne\nm\pw _m[yXs `cWIqS, hncp {]hWXIfn t\cnv In tNcpItbm hncp {]h\tfmSv \nwKX ]pepItbm sNpp. `cWIqSnse ]p]pImcpsS Xm]cyw kwcnv `cWapdnm\pw `cW Xm]cyn\v `ojWnbmIp kwhn[m\ \njvImk\w sNm\pamWv `cWIqS Ccw i]vXamsbmcp ]X\s kzbw hcnncnpXv. ]mesapw PpUojydnbpw \njv{]`amIpw hn[n FIvknIyqohv Xen tNtdnb Xmm\I \Sp ]]m X]camb \ne]mSpI \psS P\m[n]Xyns Av Xs XInpv. AYhm `cWIqSn\v kam[m\ kwm]\mYw Fsnepw sNpXn\v ]cnanXnbpsp hncnpp FXmWh.

km{amPyXz `oIcX

km{amPyXz inI AIhpw ]pdhpw Hcpt]mse Aipamb tamlfpambmWv {]hnpXv. Ahbn {]YaambXv Ckvemw hntcm[amWv. AXn tI{oIrXamWv km{amPyXzns AXnXo{hamb B{IaW {]hWXI. tkmhnbv tNcnbpsS ssiYneytmsS ]mmXyv tbmPnms\mcp s]mXpi{Xp Bhiyambncpp. AXn\v hwiobhpw aXIobhpamb Nphbp HtcIIs Ah \nbnp AXmWv Ckvemapw apkvenwIfpw.

]Xn\mw \qmp apX km{amPyXzns \oNamb Xm]cy ]qhWnbm XpSnbnpv. Asms tXtcmn\ncbmbXv {][m\ambpw {]IrXn karfmb `q{]tZifmbncpp. AXn\v PmXnbpsSbpw aXnsbpw am{Xamb Hcp apJapm bncpn. \nc]cm[nIfmb ]Xn\mbncsf Znt\\sbtmWw sImsmSpnbmWh Atacn IsnbXpw hnPbmtLmjw \SnbXpw.

A[n\nthins Aqdv hjImes Ncn{Xat\zjnv \Snb hniIe\n "hn\n s]coc'bpw "sPdaoko{_qpw' A[n\nthi inIfpsS \cta[hpw hwiipoIcWhpw kw_nbmb sRnp kw`hfhXcnnnpv. aX]camb Bthihpw aX tI{fpsS t{]mml\hpw AXn\pmbncppshv hyamsnpv. hwishdnbpsSbpw kmapZmbnI ]]mXnsbpw IqSn ]n pWtbmsSbmWv km{amPytXhmgvN \SnpXv.

km{amPyXz inIfpsS Asæn apWnbpsS kaImenIamb hncp at\m`mhw apJyambpw tI{oIrXambncnpXv Ckveman\pw apkvenwIġpsaXnscbmWv. Ckvemsam `oIchmZsapw apkvenw Fm `oIchmZnsbpw a\nemsSp kmlNcyw hfm\mWh {ianpXv. Amcmjv{S cwKv DqXamIp GsXmcp kwLjmhIsfbpw ^e{]Zambn AXn\h D]tbmKsSppIbmWv. _lpapJ {]XnIcW km[yXbp {]h\ \Sn, AXphgn Ipsd BfpIsf {]tIm]n XcmpIbpw As\ Dmbnocp {]Xn{]h\ D]m[nbmn ASna iampIbpw sNpI FXmWXns Cs coXn.

Amcmjv{S cwKv km{amPyXzns XmWvVhw \SpnSfnsemw HcpXcw hnfshSpmWv \SpsImncnpXv. {]iv\w hnXv {]tIm]\apmn Iem]ImcnIsfbpw t]mcmfnIsfbpw krjvSnv AhnsS CSs]S \SpIbmbncpp. kam[m\w m]ntXn\v bXv\nt tI{fpsnepw km{amPyXz ZptamlnIfpsS D]hn`mKsa t]mse {]hnmt\ Ahsms km[nppq. Fmnepw km{amPyXz Zptamlns aXm`napJy`mhw {]XyamWv. Asæn Ckvemw apkvenw hncp at\m`mhw sXfnp ImWmhpXmWv.

tIheamb Zmkyhrn sImv Xr]vXnsSm t]mepw Xmdmhn[w AXntamln\SnasncnpIbmWv km{amPyXzw. a[y]uckvXy tZiv \Sp ssk\nI \ofpw kmlfpw AXmWv IpdnpXv. cmjv{Sobamb Zmkyhrnv kaImenI ]mmXy `mjyn thdn Hcp Bibw Xs Dmbnpv. DSamhImihpw A[oim[nImchpaSw ]Xnp \IWsa \n_ԯnemWv km{amPyXz Iivaem. AXn\v hisSpXn\p ssha\kyw {]ISnnpXn\memWv a\pjynm {Iqc ]oU\ġv \nc]cm[nIfpw kv{XoIfpaSaphsc Ah hnt[ bcmpXv.

hIt`Z

`oIcXbpsS hIt`Z ]eXpapv. I¸nXamhp ]cn[n\pkrXambn AXn\p hyXykvXamb t]cpI e`nnpv. IqSpX B{IaW]chpw {]XymLmXapfhmpXpw ASnapXn kwlmcmIX IqSpX DmhpXpw `cWIqSkm{amPyXz `o IcXIġmWv. kuIcynsbpw ]cnioe\nsbpw anIhpw hym]r Xnbpa\pkcnmbncnpw ap `oIcXI \S\w \SpXv. `cWIqS ]mfntam \nwKXtbm A\pIqeamm\mhphcptSXpw AXncqamb {]XymLmX krjvSnpw.

Hcp aXhnizmkn asmcp aXhnizmknp t\sc ImWnp {IqcXIsf aX`oIcX Fp ]dbmw. sk_v {InkvXym\nI t_mkv\nb apkvenwIsXnsc \Snsmncnp ss]imNnIamb {IqcX DZmlcWw. Ckvdtb ^ekvXo\nItfmSpw ]cnkc cmjv{StfmSpw ImWnp sImSpw {IqcXIfpw tIhe cmjv{SobambXp am{Xa, PqX aXns Ckvemw apkvenw sshcns {]Xn^e\w IqSnbmWv. Ncn{Xn XpeyXbnm {IqcXIfmWv Ckvdtb \SnsmncnpXv. kzw \mn \npw hnip `qan (?) bntev ]emb\w \SnsbnbhtcmSv ]mInm Xo{hhmZnI ImWnp {IqcX hwiobamb `oIcXbpsS KWn s]Spp. \nba]cambn ]m Inm\n Ignbm\hkcapmbnpw AX\phZnm ]mInm Xo{hhmZnI Hcpa. Cy ^mjnpI apkvenwIsXnsc \Sp B{IaWfpw ASnaepIfpw hKobX Fp \mw hnfnpXmsWnepw AXns\mcp adphiapv. ]mInm Nmcmcpw ]mInm caphcpamWv apkvenwIsf {]NmcWhpw hoWhpw XsbmWv ASnm\ ImcWw. AXn\m AXpw hwiob `oIcXbmWv.

{]Xn`oIcX

Ccw hncp {]hWXIsfbpw \ioIcW {iasfbpw sNdpm\p Dhnfn ssPh]camWv. {]XyambXpw AmXpamb Fm hncpXIfpw XncndnbpXn\p tijn a\pjy\v am{XapXmWv. D]cnkqNnn hn[w AXncqamb B{IaWfpsSbpw ]o U\fpsSbpw ]men B{IaW]camb {]Xntj[ns km[yX IqSpXemWv. AXmWv bYmYn {]Xn`oIcX. `cWIqS `oIcXsbbpw CXc `oIcXIsfbpw t\cnSpXn\mbp HcpXcw sshcpym[njvTnXamb kao]\amWXv. ISpXpw XovWhpamb kmlNcys ^e{]Zambpw hyhm]nXambpw sNdpm\p kwhn[m\amcmbpXn\p ]Icw B{IaWs B{IaWw sImv XSpmsav [cnpXv icnbmsWp tXmpn.

`cWIqShpw `oIcXbpsS XpSmcpw kIe kml kcmWv. AXn\m Xs {]tIm]\n\nShcpp kmlNcy CmXmm\mWv {iantXv. Bcn \nv {]XnIcWapmbmepw AXv P\Iobamb ]npWbpw AwKoImchpw e`npXv am{Xta BImhq. HsSpensbpw amn\ndpsSensbpw kwibnsSensbpw kmlNcyw Xoms\fpamWv. Xncpm {]bmkhpamWv FtmWw.

thUv t{SUv sk B{IaWw am{Xw DZmlcWamsbSpmw. AXns ]nn {]hnp Fmtcm]nsSp Dkmabpw kwLhpw sImSpw `oIccpsS ]nIbnemWpXv.

Hcp {]iv\s hnebncptXv AXns kzm`mhnIhpw {]Xyhpamb t\sfsbnepw A\pam\nmWv. A{Ia Xo{hamb apkvenw hncpXbpsS hnkvt^mS\w {]Xonp An]Xs s]mnsdnnpX _pn. thUv t{SUv sk B{IaWm\cw temI Xen Hcp apkvenw hncp Iqmbva AXniambn cq]spshXt t\cv. Ccp\qtdmfw apkvenwIfpw AXneIsnpsmWv IWv (N{nI dnnIv kvs]jy 2002, t]Pv: 165). CkvemanI kaqlnse Hmtcm Intbbpw Xpey BZcn ImWm t]mepw km[nmhcn {]Xn `oIcXv {]tNmZ\ambXv kmapZmbnItam aX]ctam Bb hnNmcamIm Xcan. Fm Xo{hhmZnIsfbpw `oIchmZnIsfbpw t]mse kmlNcy]camb hn{`amhbpsS ^eambpmb Ahpw \oNhpamb HcpXcw kao]\w Fp am{Xta AXn\v ]dbm km[nq.

Fs\?

`oIcXbpsS cv apJhpw {]ISnnpXv cu{Zhpw `bm\Ihpamb A{Ia hmk\bmWv. \n`bambn Pohnm\p auenImhImisbmWXv XIp IfbpXv. henb {]Xn^e\hpw {]XymLmXhpw Dmp `oIcm{IaWfpw ap `oIc {]h\fpw ham\Ime a\mnsb hndennnpv. t_mw_v kvt^mS\, thymam{IaW, ssk\nI tXhmgvN, hnam\ dm, \bX{ {]Xn\n[nIsfbpw SqdnpIsfbpw Xnsmp t]mh, sIme]mXI, AnadnI, NmthdpI, ]o Unn XpSnb `oIcXbpsS {]mtbmKnI cq] ]eXpw \SpsImncnpp. hyXykvXamb kao]\ coXnI CXns\ms kzoIcnmdpapv.

kmsc Xnsmpt]mbn hnet]in ]Ww ]nSpp `oIcX Hcp {]mm\nI `mhw kzoIcnnnsænepw khhym]nbmWv. GXv coXnbpw {]XymLmXfpmpXpw kam[m\n\pw sskzc PohnXn\pw `ojWnbpamsWXn XntXn.

kwlmcn\v t\XrXzw \IphcpsS tijnsb ASnm\sSpnbmWv amK cq]sSpmdpXv. lnve Xtinbcmb Ziesf tImskt{Sj IympIfn \njvIcpWw ]oUnnpw shSnshpw sImesSppIbpmbn. Atacn 1940Ifn lntcmjnabnepw \mKkmnbnepw {]Ya t_mw_v hjw \Sn esf sImsmSpn. Ctm hyXy cmPyfn Atacnbpw Bm\phnIfpw \nc]cm[nIfmb ]Xn\mbncsf A\pZn\satmWw CmY sa\v sImsmSpnsmn cnpp. kvt\lw hpIbpw a\pWpIbpw sNptXmsS Hcmfnepmbnocp {`mamb Bthin CtX \Sq Fv n]vXsSpm km[npIbn.

CcI

B{IaWImcnIġv eyapsmWv [mcW. ]t, amKsambmepw {IqcambmWXv \apv t_m[ysSpXv. Atacn `cW hK Xm]cyhpw \ne]mSpIfpw FXnstSXmbncnpw, AXv t]mse atsXnepw Hcp cmjv{Sehs \ne]mSv IpIchpw XIstSXpambncnpw. \b]cambn GsXmns\bpw hncp tNcnbn \npXv \mKcnI hyhbn FXnsmpw {]ISnntXn. auenIamb kzmX{yns `mKambncnpaXv. ]t, hntcm[ns adhn A\oXn \oXnbmbpw A{Iaw {Iaambpw XocpsXs\bmWv. Nne am\ZWvVfXn\mhiyamWv. AXn\memWv \mKcnI hyhbnsemw Xs bphpw kam[m\hpw kpcbpw {Iakam[m\hpw inm \nbafpw Ipsf Ipdn NbpapmbXv.

s]mXphmbn AwKoIcns Hcp XXzamWv Hcp \nc]cm[n Hcnepw innsScpsXXv. A]cm[nIsf \nWbnm\mbXn\v tijta inm \S]Snv \ymbapq. A]cm[nsb Innbnsæn A]cm[nsb krjvSnpI F XeXncn hoWamWnpXv. AXns ASnm\nemWv Imcy \SpXv. bYmY {]XnI kkpJw kpcnXcmbncnptm \nc]cm[nI ]oUnnsSpIbmWv. Dkmasb XncmWv Atacn A^vKm B{IaWw XpSnbXv. Fm Dkma Cpw kpcnX\msWmWv Adnhv. kman\pw Xs Nne a{nampw thn (?) bmWv CdmJns\ B{IanXv. ]mhw CdmJnI ]Xn\mbncfmWv tlmansXv. CdmJnIfpsS kam[m\n\pw (?) kpcnXXzn\pw Atacn CdmJn B{IaWw \Sn. kam[m\anm \mfpIfmWntm...  2006 G{]n 8, i\nbmgvN Hcp Nmthdm{IaWns hm \madnXmWv. aqv NmthdpI Hnv Hcp ]nbn B{IaWw \Sn. B ]nbn PpapAxsnbhscmhcpw AhnSps Camans Atacn D]mkIXzs AwKoIcnphcmhWsan.

2006 Unkw_ 30\v kmw lpssks\ Atacn ]mh km Xqnten. AXns\ XpSpw CdmJv InsbcnbpIbmWv. CdmJn B{IaWw XpScpsapw ssk\nI tijn hnnpsapw Atacn ]nimNv hyamnbnpv. 2006 am{Xw CdmJn 26782 t] sImspshmWv bp. F. \Ip IWv. Atacn A[n\nthin\p tijw 16 ew t] CdmJn \np ]emb\w sNbvXnpapv.

\nc]cm[nIfpw s]mXpkzpw kzImcykzpw \innsSpXneqsS Imcyw t\SmsaXv hymtamlamWv. \psS Adnhns] GsXms Xo{hhmZ]camb Hmtdj\pIfptm AXnsemw {]Jym]nX eyw Fmbncpmepw A\p`hnX{Xbpw \nc]cm[nIfmWv. \jvSambXv AhcpsS kpIfpamWv. \nc]cm[nIfnepw knepw kw`hnp IjvSXIfn {]iv\fpsS ]cnlmca A{IanI ImWpXv. adnv AsXmcp tjmv {SovsamWv F \nemWs{X.

Hcp \ymbimkv{Xnepw \oXoIcWamnnnm Cu ASnm\ A]Nbn tI{oIrXamWv GXv Xcnep `oIcXIfpw. _pjnsbpw IqmfnIfpsSbpw km{amPyXz `oIcX XpSn dn N{\ntemfap Fm `oIcXIfpw BXynIambn kzmYamb Nne kpJnnepI \IppshmsX AXns ]cnWnXn `oIchpw ssIcmXnIhpamWv. AXmIs {]Jym]nXamb eyns hgnbn Hpw t\SnsmSpnnmXpamWv.

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