atäXp cwKhpw t

XzcoJXpw km[mcW¡mcpw


 icoAXns ImcynepÅ Akm[mcWamb IWniXbpw kqvaXbpamWp XzcoJXv. km[mcW¡mcs PohnXn ]qÀWmÀYn CXp {]mtbmKnIam¡pI ZpjvIcamWv. Zo\o hnjbn {]mYanI Úm\w Xs Dd¡mh\mWtÃm km[mcW¡mc. Ahs hoWþhnNmc hrw hfsd sNdpXmbncn¡pw. ]WvVnX\p Inp Aht_m[w Ah\p InpI {]bmkamWv. aXns FÃm Imcynepw ØnXn CXmsWncns¡ koÀWX \ndª XkzÆp^nsbpw XzcoJXnsbpw Imcyn ]dbm\nÃtÃm.

a\pjys\ Ahs _pnbpsS tXmX\pkcnp kao]n¡Wsav Ckvemw \nÀtZin¡pp.  HmtcmcpÀ¡pw DÄs¡mÅmhph am{Xw icnbmb cq]nepw Afhnepw AhXcnn¡WsamWv Ckvemans \ne]mSv. hnizmkImcyn hsc Ckvemw kzoIcn \banXmWv. Cu \bw ewLn¡sSpnSp a\pjy hgn sXäpsav Ckvemw IW¡m¡pp. XzcoJXns Imcyn am{Xw Cu XXzn\p {]knbnsÃp hmZn¡pXn IgnÃ. AXpsImp XzcoJXns hyhØm]nXamb amÀK\nÀtZiÄ ASn km[mcW¡mc\n ASntÂ]n¡pXv A\pNnXamWv. hn]coX^eamWv AXpfhm¡pI.

XzcoJXns Ncn{Xn s]mXpP\Ä¡p kmÀh{XnIamb {]m[m\yw \ÂIsXn\p tcJbnÃ. AtX kabw, XÀ_nbXns ]Zhnbn hncmPn almmÀ XfpsS BßImn sImp A[acmb ]escbpw Dbcfn Fnnpv. XÀ_nbXns Xen km[mcWImcs\ tNÀv XzcoJXv hn]pesSpWsav GsXnepw alm BhiysXmbn ImWm\pamhnÃ. kXyamb XzcoJXn tNcphsc km[mcW¡mc\v DÄs¡mÅm\mIm ]coWÄ¡pw \ncoWÄ¡pw sshÚm\nI NÀIÄ¡pw hnt[bam¡nbncpXmbmWp Ncn{Xw. XÀ_nbXv \qämpIÄ¡p appXs \ndpnshspw bphkaqlw Cu taJebn ImepIppXp ]msS Ipdªp t]msbpsams¡ Camw kpdqJpw(d) Jpibvcn(d)bpw ]dªXv CXn\p aXnbmb sXfnhmWv.

s]mXpP\ns Bhiyw icoAXmWv. hnizmk]cambpw IÀa]cambpw ]mIsSmh\mbncn¡pw km[mcW¡mc. \nkvImcns Imcyn Xs \n_Ô\IÄ IrXyambn ]men¡m Ah AdnhpÅh\mbncn¡nÃ. Ccsamcmsf XzcoJXn apcoZm¡Wsap iTn¡pXp _pn¡p \nc¡pXÃ. XzcoJXv, \mbhsc Bßobambn Dbcfnsen¡m klmbn¡p kcWnbmWv. IÅpIpSn, s]p]nSn, ]eni hm XpSnbh \ndp sN¿pI icoAXns {]t_m[\ hnjbamWv. AXpt]mse, \nkvIcn¡mh \nkvImcw XpStXp icoAXns Bhiyhpw IÂ]\bpamWv. XzcoJXns Bhiyw t\c s Xs \nkvIcnp sImncn¡phcpsS \nkvImcn A\yNnIÄ shSnªp AÃmlphn ebn¡m t{]cnn¡emWv. icoAn hqPyambhs\ XzcoJXnte¡p XÅn hnSpXp kap{Z kmcw Dtin¡pbmsf IenÃmsX ISen XÅpXn\p XpeyamWv. XzcoJXv hbänngpn\pÅ hIbmbn [cnhÀt¡ CXn\p km[n¡q.

km[mcW¡mc, hntij¡mc Fns\ cp hn`mKs B[ymß NÀbn AhXcnnXp ImWmw. "Ahmapmkv' F kwÚ D]tbmKnmWp km[mcW s]mXpP\s ]cnNbsSppXv. aäpÅhscän "Jhmkzv' Fpw ]dbpw. Jhmkzn Xs IqSpX DXÄ IcØam¡nbhsc "JhmkzpÂJhmkzv' Fp ]nsbpw hIXncn¡mhpXmWv. Ccsamcp hIXncnhv Bhiyambn hXp XkzÆp^ns Imcyn km[mcW¡mcs AXncpw hcpw hyam¡m\mWv. JpÀB C¡mcyw kqNnnnpv.

"XJvh' F B[ymß Bibs DZmlcWamsbSpm C¡mcyw hyamIpXmWv. XJvh ]cnip Zo\ns \mcmb thcmsWXn BÀ¡pw XÀ¡anÃ. icoAXnepw XzcoJXnepw XJvhbmWp {][m\w. km[mcW¡mc\pw Akm[mcW¡mc\pw, Akm[cW¡mcn Akm[mcW¡mc\pw XJvh thWw. Fm Cu aqphn`mKn\pw XJvh hyXykvXamWv. AÃmam AlvaZv fznbmDo(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI:

""Ckveman XJvh Fp ]dªm Zpbmhnsbpw BJndnsbpw A]ISsf Imp cn¡emWv. CXv Gsd hym]vXnbpÅXpw Gä¡pdnepIÄ¡p hnt[bhpamWv. XJvhbpsS Gähpw Xmgv]Sn inÀIn \npÅ tamN\amWv. Gähpw DbÀ ]Sn \ntcm[\]camb imk\IfpsS t]cn hcp insb Imp cn¡epw. Fm lJoJXns hmm¡fpsS hoWn XJvh cq]sSWsapsn ta ]dªXn\p ]pdsa AÃmlphÃmhbn hym ]rXamIpXn \np a\Êns\ {]Xntcm[n¡epw ]cn]qÀWambn Ah\nte¡v AenªptNcepw DÄsSpw. hn[n{]Imcw XJvh ]peÀWsa JpÀB\nI BÚbpsS s]mcpÄ CXmIpp. XJvh DmIm hyhpw Ahyhpamb inÀ¡n \np tamNnX\mthXpv. hyhpw Ahyhpamb inÀ¡ns tXmXp hynIÄ¡\pkcnp amdn hcpw. km[mcW¡mcs\ kw_Ônp hyamb inÀ¡v Fp ]dbpXp X\n Ip^vdv AYhm kXy\ntj[amIpp. Ahyamb inÀ¡v \mhpsImv AÃmlphns GIXzw AwKoIcn¡pIbpw AIfw AÃmlphÃmhbn ]nSnsImSp¡epamWv. km[mcW¡msc kw_Ôn¡p Ahyamb Cu ]ptNÀ¡emWv Akm[mcW¡mcpsS(Jhmkzv) hyamb in À¡v. ChcpsS Ahyamb inÀIv Zpbmhnte¡pw `uXnI amÀKfnte¡pw Xn cnbemIpp. Jhmkzns Cu Ahy inÀImWp JhmkzpÂJhmkzns hyamb inÀ¡v. ChcpsS Ahyamb inÀ¡v ]ctemI kpJnte¡v Iv \Sepw C_mZp sImp inþcIsf eyw sh¡epamIpp. Cu hn`mKamIpp ZqcÄ Xmn¡S kao]ØÀ. Cu aqp IqcpsSbpw ]ctemI ^esf ¡pdnp JpÀB ]cmaÀinnpv (PmanDÂDkzqÂ: 326).

Cu ]dªX\pkcnp XzcoJXns almb ]Zhn t\SnbhÀ¡p inÀ¡mbnocph  (inþcþkzÀKþ\cI eyw) km[mcW¡mcmb \ap¡p eyambn amdpp.

XJvhsb¡pdnp hniZoIcn¡ptmÄ Camw Jpibvcn(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: XJvhbpsS ASnd inÀ¡v kw`hn¡pXp XSbemIpp. tijw Ipäfpw Ip dhpIfpw `hn¡pXns\ Im¡emWv. XpSÀp hcp ]Zhn, ldmtam lemtem Fp hyaÃmh Hgnhm¡epw ]ns A\mhiysap tXmph apgps¡ Hgnhm¡epamIpp''(cnkme: 52).

XJvhsb ]cmaÀin¡sh Camw KÊmen(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""XJvhbpsS ]ZhnIÄ aqmIpp. Hv inÀ¡ns\ kqn¡Â. cmaXp _nZvAXns\ kq n¡Â. aqmaXp imJm]camb Ipäsf kqn¡Â. ZpÀhrnIÄ cn \amWv. Hv ASnØm\]cambh. X\n ]m]fmWnXv. cmaXv ASnØm\]caÃmh. lemen \np Xs Bhiyn\pdw hcph Cu KWn s]Spp. CXn HmanXns\ kqn¡Â \nÀ_ÔamWv. Cu kqvaX Hgnhm¡nbm in DdmWv. cmaXv Daamb XJvhbmWv. CXv Dt]nm Bt]nX\mbnocpw. Hmas XJvh \ne\ndpnbm Hmas ]Zhn t\Smw. A\pkcWns t\cmb amÀKamIpp AXv. cmas XJvh sImphm DX ]Zhn t\SmhpXmWv. IpäÄ Dt]n¡pI, BhiyanÃmh Hgnhm¡pI Fns\ cn\w XJvh HcmÄ¡v HcpanpIqm\mbm Ah XJvh F Bibs ]qÀoIcnXmbn ]dbmw'' (dufXpzmen_o: 228).

C{Xbpw ]dªXn \nv Hcp Imcyw hyambn. B[ymß Imcyn km[mcW¡mÀ, Akm[mcW¡mÀ F thÀXncnhp ]WvVnX temIw AwKoIcnXmWv. Ckvemans \mcmbthcv Fp ]dbmhp XJvhbpsS Imcyn Xs IY CXmsWncns¡ XzcoJXv FÃmhÀ¡pw kzoImcyamsWpw \nÀ_ÔamsWpw hcpn th{X hnhcanÃmhsc XzcoJnte¡p henng¡pXp \oXoIcn¡mhpXÃ.

Ignhn\pdt¡v BÚIÄ sh¡p aXaà Ckvemw. CXp JpÀB Xs ]dªnpv. XzcoJXns temIs XJvhbpw \nkvImchpsams¡ ISp \nbaÄ DÄs¡mÅphbmWv. Ah ]men¡m Hcp km[mcW¡mc\p km[n¡nÃ. AXpsImmWtÃm AhÀ km[mcW¡mcmbXv. AXpsImv Ac¡msc XzcoJXnte¡p tNÀ¡pXn X{XsSpXp hamWv. JpÀB ]dbpXp Im WpI:

""\nÄ Ignbp hn[n AÃmlphn\p XJvh sN¿pho'' (kqdXpKm_p : 16). JpÀBs Cu BÚsb ]cmaÀinv CkvamCuep lnJn(d) ]dbpp: ""C_v\p AXzmDãm(d) ]dªp: JpÀBs IÂ]\ {]Xn^ew sImv AÃmlphns\ sXmp kwXr]vXcmhphtcmSmWv. Fm AÃmlphns\ sImÃmsX kwXr]vXcmImhtcmSpÅ BÚ "hn[n{]Imcw \nÄ XJvh: sN¿pho'' FXmWv. XJvhbpsS Imcyn A_vdmdpw (\à P\Ä) apJÀd_ofpw (kao]ØÀ) XnepÅ Acnte¡mWp alm kqN\ \ÂIpXv. ""Ignbp amXncn XJvh sN¿q FXv A_vdmdns\ Dtinpw "hn[n{]Imcw XJvh sN¿q' FXp kao]Øsc DtinpamWv. kao]ØcpsS ØnXn BemcnIamb Cu DWÀbn \np ]sä ]pdp IS¡emWv. AXs{X XJvhbpsS bmYmÀYyhpw lJpw'' (dqlpÂ_bm: 10/20).

km[mcW¡mcsbpw {]tXyI¡mcpsSbpw XJvhsb hnip JpÀB Xs thÀXncnncn¡pXmWnhnsS ImWpXv. IgnbpamXncn XJvh sNbvXm aXn sb JpÀBs \ne]mSv, Ignbm hn[nepÅ XJvh s]mXpP\n \nv DmIWsap iTn¡pXn AÀYansÃp hyam¡pp. XzcoJXns t]cn  Ccw ASntÂ]n¡epIÄ \SpXp sXämWv.

km[mcW¡mcs\ XzcoJXnte¡p XÅnhnSpXnse asämcm]v CkvemanIm\pjvTm\ Imcyfnse apKW\m{Iaw sXän¡ppshXmWv. km[mcW¡mc\v Hmas _m[yX icoAXns _mly\nbaÄ ]camh[n ]Tn¡epw sXäpIqSmsX IÀaÄ \nÀhln¡epamWv. CXn\p Xs kabw Inmhs\ BßÚm\ clkyÄ ]Tnn¡m ssI]nSnm\mbn¡pXp aXw \nÝbn apKW\m{Iant\mSpÅ shÃphnfnbmWv. icoAXnÃmsX XzcoJXnÃ. icoAvþXzcoJvþlJoJv F {Iaw sXän¡pnSv ]X\w FfpamIpw. \hPmX in iphn\p Bndn s]mcnp \ÂIp A\p`hamWv CXpaqew DmhpI. Bndn tamiambXà AXymlnXw kw`hn¡m ImcWw, AXv DÄs¡mÅm Ipªv ]mIsSmXmWp {]iv\w. CXpt]mse, XzcoJXn\p ]mIsSmhs\ AXnte ¡p XÅnhnm Ahs PohnXw XmfwsXäpw. XzcoJv km[mcW¡mc\p \nÀ tin¡phÀ FpsImv AXv ]änsà hkvXpX Nnn¡pnÃ? Camw KÊmen  (d) ]dbpXp ImWpI:

""km[mcW¡mc\v AKm[ AÀYXefpÅ hnÚm\w Hcn¡epw ssIamdcpXv. AXymhiyamb C_mZXpIÄ, sN¿p sXmgnepIfn hnizkvX\mtIXns BhiyIX XpSnb kmam\yImcyÄ ]Tnnp aXnbm¡Ww. AXpt]mse, AhcpsS a\Ên kzÀKþ\cIþtamlþ`b NnIÄ JpÀB ]dªXpt]mse \nd¡pIbpw thWw. AXÃmsX, AhÀ¡p apn NÀbpsS IhmSÄ XpdnScpXv. As\ sNbvXm P\fpsS \ne\nÂ]n\pw Jhmkzns \nXyPohnXn\pw AXymt]nnXamb `uXnI PohnX kmZ\ amÀKÄ \nept]mIpw'' (Clvb: 1/58).

XzcoJXns Aäw I CamamWp KÊmen(d). alm\mWp km[mcW¡mcs PohnXtcJ hcpImWn¡pXv. s]mXpP\n\v Ccw AKm[ Úm\ amÀKÄ XpdpsImSpm temIns \nÝeX¡p Xs AXp ImcWamtb¡psap alm `b¡pp. XzcoJXns t]cp]dªv DÅ aoIhSw IqSn \ndp n IpSpw_n\p ]nWnbpm¡p XzcoJXv hyhkmbsf apn ImWpIbmWv alm.

XzcoJXns `mKambnhcp BibÄ km[mcW¡mc\n hn]coX^ew kr jvSn¡psa hmZ¡mc\mWv Camw KÊmen(d). XzcoJXn {][m\amb GImhmks(DkveXv) ]cmaÀinv Camw ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""Zo\o hnÚm\w ]Tn¡pXn\p _pnbpw kmlNcyhpw H HcmÄ¡v ]T\n\p apv GImhmkw Atbäs ]cmPbw hcppw. CXp sImmWv CamaoÄ ]dªncn¡p Xv, \o BZyw ^nJvlv ]Tn¡q. tijw DkvesXSp¡q Fv. ]T\n\p apv GIm hmkn\p t]mbm Ipsd Ddnbpw A\mhiy BtemN\IfnteÀspw Po hnXw Ignªp t]mIpw. am{Xaà lrZbw sImpw icocw sImpw Xm sN¿p A\pjvTm\Ä NXnbn s]pt]mIpXpw Xm\dnbmsX Xs AdnhnÃmbva sImv s]mfnªp ]mfokmIpXpamWv. Ah Ftmgpw ]nimNns ]cnlmk ]m{Xambn amdpXmWv. Xms\mcp Bcm[\¡c\msWp \Sn¡m AXp ImcWamIpw. CÂamWp Zo\ns ASnd. km[mcW¡mc\pw hnhcanÃmh\pw Dkv eXv \ hcppXÃ''(ClvbmAv: 2/236).

Camans Cu hoWw km[mcW¡mc\pw XzcoJXpw Xnse _Ôs hyam¡ncpp. km[mcW¡mc Acw Bßob Imcyfpambn s]sv HäbSn¡v _ÔsSptmÄ sXän[mcW hcm\pw ]nimNns sIWnbn AIsSm\pw km[yX GsdbmWv. Bßob kwÚIÄ sXämbn hymJym\np idCs\ Xs ssIhnhcpsS IY Camw C_v\p lPdn lbvXan(d) ^Xmhbn Dcnnpv. C_v\p Ad_n(d)sbtmsebpÅ BßÚm\nIfpsS {KÙfpsS ]mcmbWw t]mepw km[mcW¡mc\p tbmPnXsÃmWp ]VvVnXm`n{]mbw. C_v\p lPdn lbvXan(d) ]dbpp:

""C_v\p Ad_n(d) XsftmsebpÅ almmcpsS BßÚm\ {KÙÄ ]m cmbWw sN¿pXn \np P\sf XSbWsaXp \nbaamIpp. B[ymß cwKv Atbäsanb, InXm_vþkpns BgÄ Xmnb Bcn^o Ä¡ÃmsX a\Ênem¡m\mIm ]e clkyfpw B {KÙfn InSpv. Ccsamcp ]Zhn Fn¡mh Ah hmbnm Im hgpXn Bib¡pgn hoWp t]mIpXmWv. Nne AhnthhnIÄ Ah hmbnv CkvemanI icoAXns lmcw Igpn \np s]mnsdnªp inÀ¡n AIsXmbn \psS A\p`hn Xsbpv. hyamb ]cmPbw FÃmsXp ]dbm. Hcp B ßÚm\n¡v Ah BhiyambXÃ. aäpÅhÀ¡v AXp t\m¡pXn\m tZmj^eÄ CÃmsbn Xs D]Imcw GXmbncpmepw CÃtÃm. AtXkabw C_v\p Ad_o(d) XfpsS Xs Bß inWhpw kz`mh kwkvIcWhpambn _Ôs {KÙÄ Dv. Ah Camw KÊmen(d)sbpw A_qXzmen_pÂa¡n(d)bpsSbpsams¡ InXm_pIÄ t]mse Clþ]ct\Ä¡pXIphbmIpp. Acw IrXnIÄ ]mcmbWw sN¿pXn bmsXmcp sXäpanÃ''(^Xmh lZokn¿: 210).

 

a\:imkv{Xw

km[mcW¡mÀ XzcoJXn IpSppIbpw ]WvVnXmsc ]pdw XÅpIbpw sN ¿p ØnXn Cp hym]IamWv. hymPXzcoJXpIÄ krjvSn almhn]pw h\bpamWnXv.  km[mcW¡mÀ Cu hnjbn XÂ]ccmIpXn\p ]nnse a\:imkv{Xw efnXamWv.

Zo\o hnÚm\ Imcyn h]qPyambhÀ¡p XzcoJXnsenbm Atbä s alXzhpw sshÚm\nIambn {[pXKXnbnepÅ DbÀbpw ssIhcpsamWp ]ecpw [cnncn¡pXv. XzcoJXn tNÀnsnepw XÄ¡p ]Tn¡m\mImXns hnShp XoÀp, ]WvVnXmÀs¡mw XnfWsav AhÀ tamln¡pp.  Ccsamcp hnNmcns ^eambmWp XzcoJXn tNÀhcmbn \Sn¡p hmÀ ]WvVnXsc sImª\w IppIbpw hneIpdp ImWn¡pIbpw sN¿pXv. XzcoJXnembtXmsS hÀjÄ ]Tnpw ]Tnnpw Ignbp BenaoÄs¡maà AhÀ¡papdp Xfpw Fnspshv ChÀ Alcn¡pp. ]WvVnXmcpsS alXzn NneÀ ]peÀp ss]imNnIamb Akqbbpw A\Àlamb AXym{Klhpas{X Cu \mSIÄ¡p ]nnÂ. AÃmsX \mIepw A]cs\ \m¡epsampaÃ.

 

km[mcW¡mcs _m[yX

hymPmÀ hnekp C¡mep km[mcW¡mcs ISa ]camh[n aXhnÚm\w \pIcepw ]WvVnXmsc A\pkcn¡epw IÀaÄ BßmÀYambn \nÀhln¡epamIpp. kmZv apkvenw ]dbpp: ""At{Kkcmcmb D]tZjvSm¡Ä ]dªncn¡pXv C¡mep InXm_vþkpv ]npScWsamWv. C¡mes kzq^nIfpsS XzcoJXn {]thin¡pXns\ AhÀ Xm¡oXp sNbvXncn¡pp'' (3/384).

XzcoJXns\ ]msS hnaÀin¡ptXm hneIpdp ImWn¡ptXm Aà Ccsamcp apdnbnv. IdIfª XkzÆp^v CÃmsX t]mIpnSp P\Ä¡p ]cmPbw ]ämXncn¡m\pÅXmWv. s]mXpP\ _m[yXbmWnhnsS almmÀ DWÀpXv. \psS _m[yXbnte¡p hncÂNqn Camw KÊmen(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""\n\¡v BZyambn thXv Bcm[ys\ AdnbemIpp. Ahs \maþhntijWÄ, \nÀ_ÔÄ, Akw`hyamb KpWÄ XpSnbh AdnbmsX \n\s¡s\ Ahs\ Bcm[n¡m\mIpw? AXpsImv BZyw \o AXp ]Tn¡pI. AÃmXncpm sXämb hnizmks Ah\n shp]peÀm ImcWamtb¡pw. cmaXmbn \n\¡p \nÀ_ÔambXp aX]cambn \nÀ_Ôhpw XnckvIrXfpamb ImcyÄ Adnªpsh¡emIpp. Cs\ \nÀ_Ôambh Adnªpw \nÀ _Ôambh A\pjvTnpw aptdnbm Xs \o Hcp A\pjvTm\nbmb ]WvVnX\mIpXmW''(dufXpzmen_o: 193).

PohnXn AXymt]nXambXn BZytXv \nÀ_Ô IÀaÄ A\pjv Tn¡emIpp. AXp Ignªm kpmb IÀaÄ A\pjvTn¡Ww. Camw KÊmen(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""\o ^ÀfzpIÄ IrXyambn hom apnndpI. ^Àfzns Imcyn _{i\mbm \n\¡p kzXzapmbnocpXmWv. tijw ^ÀfzpIÄ¡p kwcWtaIm kppIÄ sNbvXv sImncn¡pI. C_mZv GdpXn\\pkcnp \nbpw `bhpw hÀ[n¡pXmWv. blvb_v apBZv(d) ]dªp: ""^ÀfzpIÄ shSnªp kppIÄ ]men¡phs Imcy tamÀp Rm AÛpXspt]mbn. ISw Xh\p XXpeyamb XpI Zm\ambn sImSpm Ah[n hm ISkwJy Xncnp tNmZn¡mXncn¡nÃtÃm Fv Fp sImv ChÀ Nnn¡pnÃ. A_q_Ivdp hÀdmJv(d) ]dbpXp \nÀ_Ôsf sFOnIsf¡mfpw _mlyambXns\ BcnIambXns\¡mfpw {]hr nsb kwkmct¡mfpw apn¡WsamWv'' (dufzXpzmen_o: 118, 119).

Camw XpScpp: ""AÃmlphpambn _Ôsp \mw ]ment¡ acymZIfn \nÀ _Ôambh cn\amIpp. Hv þ \nÀ_ÔÄ {]hÀn¡pI. cmaXp ldmapIÄ Hgnhm¡pI. \nÀ_ÔÄ {]mhÀnIam¡Â XJvhbmIpp. AXpt]mse \njnÄ Hgnhm¡epw XJvhbmIpp. Chbn Hcp Imcyw HcmÄ \Sm¡nbm A¡mcytmS\p_Ônp hcp Xn Ah {]Xntcm[npshp ]dbmw. AtXmsS kzÀKob kuJyhpw Ah\p e`n¡pXmWv. A\pkcn¡msX AÃmlphnte¡v ASp¡m\mIpXsÃp \mw a\Ênem¡Ww. \nÀ_ÔÄ, kppIÄ Fnh sN¿epw ldmwþIdmlpIÄ Dt]n¡epamIpp Ah s\ A\pkcn¡Â.

kppIÄ ]men¡pXns\¡mÄ \nÀ_ÔÄ ]men¡pXn\p apKW\ sImSp¡Ww. AXpt]mse ldmapIÄ Hgnhm¡pXn\p IdmlpIÄ Hgnhm¡pXns\¡mfpw apKW\ \ÂIWw. Cu apKW\m{Iaw sXän¡p Nne AhnthInIsf ImWmw. AhÀ [cn¡pXp XÄ AÃmlphns Gähpw kao]ØÀ BsWmWv. kXyn AhÀ AÃmlphn \nv AIepIbmWv.  kpp IÄ ]menp \nÀ_ÔÄ ]mgm¡pIbpw IdmlXv Dt]np ldmapIÄ FSp¡pIbpw sN¿pXv AÃmlphns lnXn\pw CjvSn\pw FXncmWv. a\Ên In_vÀ, DÄ\mSyw, Akqb, t]mcv, temIam\yw Fnh Ipn\ndv C_mZns thjw sIphsc t]msebmWv ChÀ'' (dufz: 226, 227).

Camans Cu hcnIÄ \psS IÀatcJ icn¡pw hcp ImWn¡pXmWv. \nÀ _Ôfpw kppIfpw ]men¡Â, ldmapIfpw  IdmlXpIfpw Hgnhm¡Â Fns\ {Iam\pKX NnIfmWp PohnXhnPbn\v Bhiyw. AtXmsSmw ]ctemIs t]Sn¡p ]WvVnX hynXzfn \np _dIXn\p thn ZnIv dpIfpw lnkv_pIfpw hmn ]Xnhm¡pXpw \ÃXmWv. Camw fznbmDo(d) ]dbpp: ""XzcoJXns Kpcp¡mcpambpÅ _Ôn\v Ahsc ]npScepw Ahcpambn ]mfnw ]peÀepw \ÃXmWv. hfsc Ipdª ImcynemsWnepw CXp \v. BZcthmSp IqSn AhcpsS lnkv_pIÄ {]mhÀnIam¡pXv Hcp DZmlcWamWv. Camw imZpen(d) ]dbpXp \psS lnkv_pIÄ HmXphÀ \s am\nhcpw \psS ImcpWys kmZnhcpamIpp FmWv'' (PmanD DkzqÂ: 20).

BßobImcyn \Ã_Ôw Impkqn¡pI FÃmsX Ahyhpw ]Wv VnXmwKoIcanÃmXpamb amÀKÄ ]npSccpXv. AXp \s sImsn¡p I \minemIpw.

Camw KÊmen(d) ]dbpXp t\m¡q: ""Hcp km[mcW¡mcs DchmZnw Xn Iªhnizmkw ]peÀepw Zo\o IÂ]\IÄ¡p hgepamWv. _mlyamb Bcm[\IÄ {]hmÀnIam¡epw PohnXamÀKÄ tXSepw hnÚm\ Imcys ]WvVnXmÀ¡p hnpsImSp¡epw C¡qn s]Spp'(idlp ClvbmAv:/283).

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