atäXp cwKhpw t

ibvJpw XzcoJXpw

                    

XzcoJXnse aÀa{][m\ LSIamWp ibvJv. ibvJv \nch[n AÀYfn hcpw. \psS kmtXnImÀYn "t{ijvST]Zhn IcØam¡nb hyn'. Cu hoW{]Imcw DX ]Zhn t\Snb Hcp Ipªn\pw ibvJv Fp ]dbmhpXmWv (PaÂ).

XzcoJXn ibvJv F ]Zw AÀYKÀ`amWv. tIhew t{ijvTX AhImisXp sImpam{Xw XzcoJXn ibvJv cq]sSnÃ. A\nhmcyambXpw Akm[mcWhpamb Bßob ]Zhn Aecn¡m\mIWw. km[mcW KXnbn ]mWvVnXynsbpw C_mZnsbpw t]cn ]escbpw ibvJv Fp hntijnn¡mdpv. B AÀYn am{Xw XkzÆp^n ibvJv F ]Zhn¡v Bcpw AÀlcmhpIbnÃ.

Xs ]nn \nchsc FÃm hn[nepw hgn ImWn¡p Hcp alm\mIpp XzcoJXn ibvJv. XkzÆp^ns hoWn a\pjy \ncc bm{XbnemWv. ImcpWyhm\mb AÃmlphnte¡pÅ {]bmWamWv Ah \Sns¡mncn¡pXv. B {]bmWn hgn sXämsXbncn¡m Adnhpw Ignhpw Pm{KXbpapÅ Hcp hgn Imn BhiyamWv. bm{Xbnse Zqcw, A]ISÄ, \nbaÄ, {]Xnk Ôn¡pÅ ]cnlmcÄ FÃmäns\bpw ]än XnIª t_m[apÅh\mbncn¡Ww hgn Imn. Acsamcp hgn ImnbmIm th FÃm tbmKyXbpw \ndª Bßob ]pcpj\s{X XzcoJXnse "ibvJv'. A_vZp dkmJp Imkm\n(d) tcJsSppp:

""icoAXv, XzcoJXv, lJoJXv Fnhbn AtAäs AdnhpÅ, a\pjya\Êns tcmKsfänbpw AhbpsS NnInÕsb¡pdnpw XnIª Úm\apÅ, tcmKÄ amäm Ignhpw inbpapÅ, kmÀK t_m[apÅ ]qÀW hynXzsbmWp Xkzhp^n ibvJv FXp sImp hnhn¡pXv''(apAvPap CkvXznemlmXnkzq^n¿: 172).

 

ibvJns tbmKyXIÄ

XzcoJXn ibvJn\v Dmbncnt¡ tbmKyXIfn NneXp ]cntim[n¡mw. kap{Z kam\amb idCu Úm\amWv Hv. C¡mcyw XzcoJXv taJebn AXypXÄ Xmnb almmscms¡ kXnwKoIcnXmWv. Camw Aen¿pÂJÆmkzv(d) ]dbpp: ""XzcoJXns Kpcphcymscms¡ GtIm]np ]dª ImcyamWp apcoZpIÄ¡p inWtaIphm HcpsSph\p icoAXn kap{Z kam\amb Adnhv thWsaXv'' (eXzmC^pÂan\: 45).

Camw AlvaZv fznbmDo(d) ]dbpp: ""Hcp ibvJn\pmtI AXymt]nXamb KpWamIpp icnbmb Úm\w'' (PmanDÂ DkzqÂ: 18).

A_vZpÂJmZndpÈ^vimhm\n(d) ]dbpp: ""Hcp ibvJn \nÀ_Ôambpw Dmbncnt¡ Hmas tbmKyX At Aäs Adnhpw hm¡mepw {]hrnbmepw AhØbmepw icoAXns\ km[qIcn¡epamIpp'' (lnZmb: 187).

Pp\bvZpÂ_KvZmZn(d) ]dbpp: ""idC¿mb FÃm CÂanepw ]cn]qÀWX kzam¡nbh\mhpI ibvJns \n_Ô\bn s]XmIpp'' (lnZmb: 187).

A_vZpÃmlnÂlmZv(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""Hcp ibvJn Ap KpWÄ CÃmsbn Ah P\sf Plmente¡p \bn¡p ZÖmemsWpdn¡Ww. icoAXns hn[nþhne¡pIÄ sImpÅ XnIª AdnhmIpp B KpWfn {][m\w (idlpþÀdmC¿: lnZmb: 197).

Camw iAvdm\n(d) ]dbpp: ""Fs t\Xmhv Aen¿p JÆmkzv(d) ]dªp: hn ipamb icoAXpsImp s]mXphnepw {]tXyIhpamb Adnªncnt¡h A{Xbpw Adnbmhs\ XzcoJXns KpcpKWn Fm ]äpXÃ. hym]ImÀYn hXv, {]tXyImÀYs kqNnn¡pXv, ZpÀ_eam¡pXv, ZpÀ_e am¡sXv XpSnb hnÚm\ imJþkIefn \nv GsXnepw Hns\än AÚ\mbm Xs Kpcp¡mcpsS ]Zhnbn \np \news]mnbXmbn hn[n¡mw'' (lnZmb: 199).

Camw KÊmen(d) ]dbpp: ""Bßob inWn\v AÀlXs ibvJv XnIª ]WvVnX\mbncn¡Â AXymt]nXamWv'' (cnkmeXp A¿plÂheZv: 17).

ibvJns idCu Úm\sänbpÅ Cu NÀ B[ymß hnjbn kwkmcn¡m AÀlXshÀ AwKoIcnXmWv. hnÚm\n ibvJn\pmbncnt¡ Bgs ]cmaÀinp XzcoJXns ]WvVnXmcmb A_pÂlk\pÈmZpen, A_p AºmkpÂaÀkn, k¿nZv bmJqXpÂAÀio, ibvJv XmPpo_v AXzmDÃmlv (d: Alpw) XpSnbhÀ ]dªncn¡pXv: ""sshÚm\nI kwhmZn alm]WvVnXmsc {]amWÄ sImp app Ipn¡m am{Xw Adnhv Hcp ibvJo\p thWw'' FmWv.

Camw iAvdm\n(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""hnembXns ]Zhn Aecn¡p Bcpw XzcoJXn Hcp "apPvXlnZv' BImsX XcanÃ. icoAXv hyam¡nbtXm CPvamHm AÃmsX Atlw A\pIcWn\p \n¡cpXv. Xm kqÀW\msW p AhImisSpIbpw GsXnepw Hcp ]WvVnXs\ XJveoZv sN¿pIbpambm Ah AkXyhm\msWp hp. apPvXlnZpIÄ Úm\Ä \pIÀnSp \np, Úm\Ä \pIcm BImsX XzcoJXn Bcpw ]qÀWcmIpXsÃv Fs Kpcp Aen¿pÂJÆmkzv(d) BhÀnp ]dªXp Rm tInpv'' (AÂbhmJoXv hÂPhmlnÀ: 2/82).

apIfn ]dªXn \npw ibvJmIm CPvXnlmZns ]ZhnbnepÅ am{Xw Adnhv thWsap hcpp. {]iv\fpsS ]cnlmcn\p \_n(kz) HgnpÅ hcpsS Adnhns\sXmv Bhiyw XoÀh\mI ibvJns \n_Ô\bmsWp Nne ]WvVnXmÀ ]dªXns s]mcpfpw CXmWv. Acsamcp ]Zhn Hcp XnI ª apPvXlnZn\ÃmsX e`yamIpXÃ. apPvXlnZv sN¿pXp, hnip JpÀB\v Xncp\_n(kz) \ÂInb hymJym\Ä NnIsªSpp idCs\ hyhtOZn¡pIbmWv. Cu ZuXyn hnPbn Camw im^nCu(d)\v ]v en ]cw lZokpIfn {]mhoWyapmbncppshp Ncn{Xw kmysSppp. ]pdsa aäp hnÚm\ imJIfn hypÂ]n kzam¡m\mbmte CPvXnlmZns ]Zhn Aecn¡m\mIq. Cu hn[samcp Úm\ kap{ZamIpI Cs kmlNcyn Akm[yw XsbmWv.

idCu hnÚm\n kap{Zkam\amb ]mWvVnXyw am{Xw Hcp ibvJns\ cq]sSpnÃ. _mlyhpw BcoIhpamb idCu PohnXw AbmÄ \bn¡pI F Xpw {][m\amWv. B[ymß cwKs AXnImb\mb ibvJv A_vZpÂJmZndp Po em\n(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""FÃm cwKpw AhØIfnepw idCs\ IqpImc\mbn Iqmh Atbä \miImcnIfn s]h\msWp a\Ênem¡Ww'' (AÂ^XvlpÀdºm\n: 160). idCu acymZIÄ ]men¡phs\bÃmsX XzcoJXns Imcyn hnizkn¡m ]äpXsÃp almmÀ ]dªncn¡pXpw CXnt\mSv \mw Iqn hmbnt¡Xpv (lnZmb: 190). ibvJns tbmKyXIÄ hniZoIcn¡sh Camw Kkmen(d) ]dªp. ""XÀ_nbXn\p tbmKy\mIWsan ibvJv XnIª ]ÞnX\mIWw. Fp IcpXn GXp ]ÞnX\pw ibvJmIm Ignbpsap [cn¡cpXv. ibvJns tbmKyXIfn {][m\s HmWp kzambn icocs sacp¡nsbSp¡Â. Xoä, Dd¡v, kwkmcw Fnh Ipdpw \nkv Imchpw Zm\[Àahpw t\mpw s]cpnpamWv Cu kzbw kwkvIcWw km[yamt¡Xv'' (cnkmeXp A¿pl heZv: 18).

Bßob Kpcphns C_mZns\än Ncn{Xn \np [mcmfw ]mTÄ e`n¡pXmWv. \nÀ_Ô IÀafnepw Xncp\_n(kz)bpsS kppIfnepw bmsXm cp hogvNbpw hcpmXncn¡pIbmWp {][m\w. kÂIÀa \ncX\mbncn¡Ww ibvJv. ]qÀh Imes almmcpsS PohnXn \npw C¡mcyw hyamIpXmWv. ibvJv Poem\n(d) icoAX\pkrX IÀaÄ AÛpXmhlambn sImp \SncpXmbn ImWmw. \mÂ]Xp hÀjtmfw Anbpd¡nÃmsX alm C _mZn IgnpIqnbXmbn Ncn{Xw ]dbpp. ibvJv A_qA_vZnÃm aplZv I\m\n(d) ]dbpp: B[ymß Úm\nIfpsS Kpcphmb A_qA_vZnÃm aplZv_v A_n ^Xlp lÀho(d) ]dbpXmbn Rm tIp: ""Fs Kpcp ibvJv Poem\n(d)\p Rm \mÂ]Xp hÀjw tkh\w sNbvXp. A¡mebfhn CimCs\Sp hpfp apdnbmsX ibvJhÀIÄ kzp_vlv \nkvIcn¡pI ]Xnhmbncpp'' (_lvP: 85).

CXn\p kam\amb \nch[n kw`hÄ ibvJns PohnXn \npcn¡m\pv. AXpt]mse Adnbs asäÃm ibvJpamcpsS PohnXnepw C_mZns IWniXbpw [mcmfnhpw Ismw. XzcoJXneqsS aäpÅhsc Bßob cwKt¡p B\bn¡p alm]pcpj F \ne¡v icoAXns Pohn¡p ]Xnmbn ibvJv amdWsaXv GXp _pnbpw kXn¡pXmWv. hen¿v BIWsan Xs \nÀ_ÔÄ¡p ]pdsa kppIÄ hÀ[nn¡pIbmWv Bhiysap lZokn ImWmw. hfsc {]kn\mbn P\Ä a\Ênem¡nb Hcp ibvJv Jn_vebpsS `mKt¡p XpnbXp I A_qbkoZpÂ_nkvXzman(d) XÄ A bmsf C¡mcyn hnizkn¡m sImÅnsÃp ]dªp apJw ImWm CjvSsSmsX aSnbXp Ncn{Xn ImWmw. Xncp\_n(kz) XÄ  Xpp Imcyn ImWnp X Hcp acymZ Hgnhm¡n FXmWv A_qbkoZv Xsf sNmSnnXv. ibvJn\v idCu PohnXw F{Xtmfw thWsav CdªXn \np {Kln¡mw.

AKm[Úm\w, C_mZn IWniX F cp Imcyfn Xnfm\mIm hsc Hcp \ne¡pw XzcoJXns t]cn alXzsSpmhpXÃ. As\ alXzsSppXp XzcoJXns\bpw icoAXns\bpw Hcpt]mse AhaXn¡pXn\p XpeyamWv.

ta ]dªXn\p ]pdsa ibvJn\pmbncnt¡ \nch[n KpWsf¡pdnp ]WvVnXmÀ thsdbpw hnhcnXmbn ImWmw. ibvJv A_vZp Akokv(d) Dcn¡pp: ""XÀ_nbXns ibvJn\v Hcp]mSp _mlyKpWÄ Dmbncn¡Ww. P\sf kw_ÔnStmfw BtcmSpw \ockw ImWn¡m a\Êns DSabmhpI, kapZmbn Hcmfpw i{Xphmbn CÃmXncn¡pI, XnIª am\y\mhpI, Bscnepw hÃXpw tNmZnm AXp \ÂIphm\pw Bscnepw XtmSv AhnthIw sNbvXm Ahs\ CjvSsSphm\pw X¿mdmhpI, Xs apcoZpIfn \npmIp ]nghpIÄ¡p amp \ÂIpI XpSnbh A¡qn NneXmWv. Ccw eWÄ _mlyambn Xs {]ISamImh ibvJmhm ]änbh\Ã. CÂap ^nJvln \npw CÂapuloZn \npw th{X Úm\w Dm bncn¡epw Cu Iqn s]XmWv. BcnIþ_mlyÚm\fn \npw k qÀW hnlnXw Inmh ibvJmbn hm Ahs\ ]npSÀhÀ lemIn Fm A[nI Zqcw kcnt¡Xmbn hcpXÃ'' (A C_vcokv: 235).

aplZv_v DaÀ(d) ]dbpp: ""kzq^o XzcoJXn ibvJns ]Zhn alXzw \ndªXmIpp. icoAXnsbpw lJoJXnsbpw Úm\Ä ka\zbn, kz`mhnepw A\pjvTm\nepw kqÀW\mb hynXzsbmWp ibvJv F \ne ¡v AhÀ AhXcnn¡pXv. ]cn]Izamb AIwImgvNbpsS ]n_etmsS AÃmlphnte¡p Wn¡pIbpw Xs ]npSÀhsc kXy]mXbneqsS B\bn¡pIbpamWp ibvJns ZuXyw. kXyn {]hmNIXzns HcÀYnepÅ ]Ichpw {]mXn\n[yhpw hln¡pIbmWv Bßob Kpcp sN¿pXv'' (aJmeXpmkznlo: 62).

ibvJv aplZv AaoþAÂIpÀZo(d) tcJsSppp: ""apÀinZn Xmsg ]dbp ImcyÄ A\nhmcyamIpp. (1) Xs apcoZpIÄ¡pmIp kwibÄ ZqcoIcn¡m\pXIp hnizmkþIÀa imkv{Xfnse XnIª Adnhv. (2) lrZbns tcmKÄ AhbpsS acppIÄ Fnh Adnªncn¡pI. tZtlObpsS B]pIfpw Ah icnsSpm DXIp inW coXnIfpw Adnªncn¡pI. am\knI ]qÀWXbn apcoZns\ Fn¡m\pXIp Bßob t_m[w Dmbncn¡pI. (3) samn apkvenItfmSpw hntijnp apcoZpItfmSpw ImcpWyhpw kvt\lhpw. (4) apcoZpIfn \np XtmSp {]ISamIp NnÃd A]mIXIÄ InsÃp \Sn¡m\Å klnjvWpX. (5) apcoZpIfpsS kn B{Klw sh¡mXncn¡epw AhcpsS ssIhiapÅXp InWsap tamln¡mXncn¡epw. (6) ]dbp ImcyÄ ASn {]hÀn¡epw hne¡p ImcyÄ BZyw Xs kzbw Dt]n¡epw. (7) apcoZpIÄs¡mv Bhiyn\ÃmsX Ccn¡mXncn¡epw XfpsS C_mZv icnbmIm\pw No NnIÄ t]mbnadbm\pw DXIphn[w icoAXnsbpw XzcoJXnsbpw DÂt_m[\Ä \ÂIÂ. (8) A\mhiy kwkmcw, Xami, tZtlOm\pkrX IrXyÄ A\mhiy Nn Fnhbn \np ]msS apamhÂ. (9) kzw Imcyn klnjvWphmIepw Xs BZcn¡Wsapw AwKoIcn¡WsapapÅ tamlw Dt]n¡epw. (10) apcoZn\v Bhiyamb inWw \ÂIpXn XnIª {imephmIÂ. (11) Bcpw ISphcm hn[w X\n¡p am{Xambn GIm hmkn\pXIp HcnSw DmhÂ. (12) `cWIÀm¡Ä, ]uc{]apJÀ XpSnbhsc sNp ImWmXncn¡Â. Ccw Htsd KpWÄ Hcp ibvJn A\nhmcyamIpp. Hähm¡n ]dªm kzlm_nIÄ¡nSbn Xncp\_n(kz) hln ]v apcoZpIÄ¡nSbn hln¡m ibvJv {]bXv\n¡Ww. Xncp\_n(kz)bpsS Ncybn AbmÄ amXrImtbmKy\mIWw (Xhodp Jpeq_v: 525þ527).

AlvaZvfznbmDo(d) Dcn¡pp: ""ibvJns KpWÄ AmWv. hyamb Bßob ipn, icnbmb Úm\w, DbÀ a\¡cpv, kwXr]vXamb AhØ, Xpfª AIwImgvN. C\n ]dbp Asw Bcnsenepw tafnm Ah ibvJmIm tbmKy\Ã. ZoImcyn AÚX, apkvenwIfpsS am\yX CSnp XmgvÂ, BhiyanÃmXn CSs]SÂ, tZtlOsb ]n]äÂ, No kz`m hw'' (PmanDÂDkzqÂ: 18).

kzq^obpsS KpWÄ hnhcn¡sh Camw KÊmen(d) FgpXpXp ImWpI: ""kw kmcn ITn\ {]tbmKÄ shSnbÂ, icoAXns Úm\w apdpsI ]nSn ¡Â, {]bXv\w ]Xnhm¡Â, ]cn{iaw \nXyam¡Â, P\fn \nv HäsSÂ, hkv{Xfn BÀ`mSw shSnbÂ, Xh¡p {]ISam¡Â, CÃmbvasb XncsªSp¡Â, kZmkab ZnIvÀ, klhÀXnXzw \m¡Â, Iuamc¡mcmb BIpnIsf ImWptmÄ ZrjvSnXmgvÂ, s] kulrZw Hgnhm¡Â, JpÀB ]T\w Pzcam¡Â'' (AÂAZ_p ^no: 7).

aX]cambn hnhcanÃmh\p ibvJmIm t]mbnp hen¿v t]mepamIm hIpn sÃmWp ]WvVnXaXw. C_v\p lPdn lbvXan(d) ]dbpp: ""Adnªncn¡Â \nÀ_Ôamb ImcyÄ ]Tn¡mh hen¿mIm AÀl\Ã. AXpsImp bmsXmcp hnhchpanÃm Hcp hen¿mIWsap AÃmlp Dtinm Ahv BZyw ]Tn¡m\pÅ Ahkchpw a\:ØnXnbpw AÃmlp krjvSnp sIm Sp¡pXmWv. Ah ]Tnp {]mhÀnIam¡pXn\\pkcnv BßÚm\w \ In DbÀpw. icoAXns Úm\w hyhØm]nXambn ]Tn¡msX InpXÃ. Camw C_v\p Ad^ amenIo(d) ]dbpp:

""icoAXns AdnhpIÄ ]Tn¡msX InnsÃXv sFIyIWvtT\bpÅ A`n{]m bamIpp. AtXkabw HuenbmC\v CXn\pdw e`n¡p Úm\w Bßob amWv. Ah Hcp am[yam IcØamIpXÃ. AÃmlphns ]¡Â \npÅ HuZmcym InpXmWv'' (^XmhÂlZokn¿: 93).

Cu ]dªXn \nv cp ImcyÄ a\Ênembn. Hvþ AXymt]nXamb idCu Úm\Ä hyhØm]nXambn ]Tn¡msX hen¿pmInÃ. cvþ As\ ]Tnp A\pjvTm\ \njvS Dmbm BßÚm\Ä Inns¡mncn ¡msXbpw henbpmInÃ. hen¿ns hyhØ Xs CXmsWn ]ns ibv Jns Imcyw ]dbm\nÃtÃm.

 

apdºnbmb ibvJv

CXphsc NÀ sNbvXXp XzcoJXn ibvJn\pmbncnt¡ acymZIfmWtÃm. taÂ]dª KpWÄ tafn Kpcphns\bmWp kzq^o kmtXnI `mjbn "apdºnbmb ibvJv' Fp ]dbpXv. XzcoJXn ibvJv Fp \ncp]m[nIw ]dªm AXp apdºnbmsWp a\Ênem¡Ww. ImcWw, XzcoJXns\ ]qÀWmÀYn {]m]n¡ph\pw {]Ncnn¡ph\pw apdºn BIWsaXmWp XXzw. ibvJpzcoJXv FXp ibvJpÀ_nbXns asämcp \maambn ]WvVnXmÀ ]cnNbsSpnbXn \npw C¡mcyw hyamIpXmWv.

ibvJpÀ_nbXmsW hmZns ]ÝmenemWp ]e hymP XzcoJXpIfpw XfpsS \mbImsc AhXcnn¡pXv. XÀ_nbXns ibvJpamÀ ]c s¡ {]XysSpIbpw Bßob inWn\p t\XrXzw \ÂIpIbpw sN¿ppshv ChÀ hmZn¡pp. C¡mcyn B[nImcnIambn kwkmcn¡m AÀlXshÀ ibvJpÀ_nbXns Cu s]cps AwKoIcnp ImWpnÃ. Camw AlvaZv kqdqJv(d)s hoW{]Imcw XÀ_nbXns ibvJpamÀ lnPvd: 800þ Xs Xntcm[m\w sImnpv. XÀ_nbX F teJ\n CXp kw_Ôamb hnhcWw ImWmw. kqdqJns hoWs icnshv  Camw imenbmXn(d) ]dªXv, IÅ ibvJpamÀ s]cpXp ImcWw kqÀW ibvJpamÀ Dsn Xs XÀ_nbXv \ndpnshncn¡ppshpw ImcyÄ AhXmfnembXn\m AhÀ kzw ImcyÄ am{Xw t\m¡pIbmsWpw Bßob insImv Ahsc Ism\mbm Xs XÀ_nbXn\p \n¡msX X_ÀdpIn\p hÃXpw Xv AhÀ XSn csSppsapamWv (^XmhÂAkvlcn¿: 1/55).

hkvXpX CXmbncns¡ apdºnbmb ibvsJXv C¡mep  kz]v\w am{XWv. G sXnepw temIv As\ HcmÄ Dsnembn Ft ]dbmhq. "AJmAv' Fv ]dbp Hcp cmk ]ntbmSmWp ibvJpzcoJXns\ ]WvVnXmÀ D]anncn¡pXv. ]qÀhoI {]hmNImcnsemcmfmb lfeXp_v k^vhms Imes a\pjydmn ]nbmWs{X AJmAv. B ]n Cptm FXv AÚmXamWv. Dsn Xs a\pjys\ dm F IrXyw AXp \nÀnshncn¡pw. temIv FhnsSbpw As\ Hcp ]n  CsÃp ]dbm IrXyamb tcJbnÃ. Dsp sh¡m Häs a\pjydm t]mepw \S¡ppanÃ. Cu AhØbn DmImw. ]t, ]gb ]Wn DmInà Fp ]dbpXp t]mse ibvJpÀ_nbXpw DmIpw. ]t, XÀ_nbXnsÃpsh¡Ww FWm Wp ]WvVnXmÀ hmZn¡pXv. ibvJpÀ_nbXv Xosc CsÃp ]dbm AhÀ ss[cysSmXv ]qÀh Imefn AhÀ DmhpIbpw XÀ_nbXv hym]Iambn Xs \Sp hcnIbpw sNbvXncpXp sImp am{XamWv.

apd_nbmb ibvJns Xntcm`mhsän ]dbptmÄ t\cs Camw Jpibvcn  (d) cnkmebn DcnXp {]kvXmhyamWv. ]qÀWcmb XzcoJXns ]WvVnXmÀ Ipdªp hp FmWp alm Øm]nXv. Cu bmYmÀYyÄ XzcoJXns IdIfªXpw bmYmÀYy]qcnXhpamb Imew Ignsªp t_m[ysSppp. CtmÄ C¡mcyn Ahtijn¡pXv GXm\pw kwÚIÄ am{XamWv. XzcoJXv, lJoJXv, ibvJv, apcoZv Fns\ Ipsd t]cpIÄam{Xw \ne\n¡pp. {]kvXpX \maÄ s]mcpfdnbmsX {]tbmKn¡sSpIbpw sN¿pp.

 

ibvJv ]eXcw

XzcoJXn ibvJpÀ_nbXmWp {][m\w Fp \mw ]dªp. Fm s]mXphn ibvJv F IoÀn¡p tbmKycmbhÀ ]ecpapsp ]WvVnXmÀ ]dbpp. ibvJv AlvaZv kpdqJv(d) Xs JhmCZn ibvJpamsc aqmbn Xncnnpv. Hv þ ibvJpÀ_nbXv Xs. cmatXv ibvJpÀJnbbmIpp. apcoZns\ sRmSnbnSsImv Bßob elcnbn BdmSn¡m BhXpÅ ibvJmWnXv. XÀ_nbXns ]Zhn {]m]nht\ Cu Akm[mcWXzn\p Ignbq. XÀ_nbXv F etJ\n Cu hnjbIambpÅ kqN\bpv.

aqmatXv ibvJpAveoamWv. Cpw \ne\n¡pXpw Fpw \ne\nÂt¡Xpamb Hcp Bßob KpcphmWp ibvJpAveow. aXhn[nIÄ ]Tnn¡pIbpw icoAXns kPohX Ddm¡pIbpw sN¿p Cu hn`mKw aX]WvVnXmcmbn {]hÀn¡phcmWv. ibvJpÀJnbbpw XÀ_nbbpw {]hÀ\ tKmYbnenÃm C¡mepw Cu Bßob Kpcp¡mÀ Atbäs {]m[m\yaÀln¡phcmWv. ChcpsS \nÀtZiÄ¡\pkcnp {]hÀn¡Â apkvenw kapZmbn s _m[yXbmWv. kapZmbns aX]camb HuXyn\v Bhiyamb {]hÀ \Ä \S ChcpsS ISabmIpp. hnÚm\kw_Ôamb NÀbn \o hnhcWw C¡mcysän ImWmhpXmWv.

ibvJpAveoans ZuXyw almbXmWv. Hcn¡epw \ndpnsh¡m BImXpw {]hmNIXzns ]npSÀbmbn Xs hcpXpamWXv. kaqlnse km[mcW¡mcs GI B{ibw Cu hn`mKamIpp. \_n(kz)bpsS PohnXw Cu hn`mKn\v Da amXrIIÄ km\nnpv. Fs Hcp apAÃnam¡n A Ãmlp ]dªbpshpw DeamAv \_namcpsS A\cmhIminIÄ BsWpsams¡bpÅ hN\Ä CXn\p aXnbmb sXfnhmWv. ]WvVnXmcpsS ZuXy s¡pdnp hnhcn¡sh \_n(kz) ]dªXv þ "kaqln ]p `mhÄ {]ISamhpIbpw ]WvVnXmÀ au\w ]men¡pIbpw sNbvXm AhÀ¡pta Cemlo im]apmIpsamWv.' ibvJpAveoans ISp _m[yXsbbmWv \_n(kz) HmÀasSppXv.

Zp:JIcsap ]dbs, ]ctemIs apn ImWphcpw BßmÀYX ]peÀphcpamb ]WvVnXmÀ¡p hsc cbnÃm ØnXnbmWp hfcpXv. Hcp`mKp _nZvApImÀ DeamCs hne CSnp Xmgvm Hcpsndnbncn¡pp. AÂ]w ]cnjvIcW t_m[apÅhÀ AXn AIsp aXw \jvSshcmIpp. asämcp `mKp XzcoJXns t]cn ]WvVnX hyqls {]Xn¡qn Ibäp hntcm[`mkw \S¡pp. XzcoJXv hnjbn DeamDÈcoAXn\p bmsXmcp ]pansÃpw AXpsImp XzcoJXns t]cn hnizkn¡pXpw BNcn¡pXpamb BibÄ¡pw A\pjvTm\Ä¡pw AhcpsS `mKp \nv At\zjWfpw ]cmXnIfpw DbccpsXpamWv ChcpsS hmin. Cu ]Ýmen \nkzmÀYcmb ]WvVnXmcpsS amäpcp ImWn¡pIbpw kaqls Imcyaambn t_m[h¡cn¡pIbpw sNt¿Xv A\nhmcyamWv. AÃmXncpm \jvSamIpXp hnip Ckvemans ssNX\yamIpw. Hcp Imcyn\v ASnhcbnSpI. icoAXmIp ]mX Xmn thWw XzcoJXn ]cnekn¡m. Fncns¡ Fs\bmWp XzcoJXn Fns HcmÄ¡p icoAXns\tbm idCu ]WvVnXmsctbm AhKWn¡m IgnbpI?. BZchnsbpw kvt\lnsbpw ItmsS ImWm\sà km[n¡q. Cu hhkvXpX kXyamb XzcoJXns Ncn{Xn \np {Kln¡mhpXmWv. DJvdhnbmb ]WvVnXmsc sNdpXmbn ImWphÀ¡p XzcoJX[njvSnXamb PohnXw Hcn¡epw km[yaÃ.

ibvJpAveoans \nÀtZin\pw D]tZin\pw apXAÃnapw km[mcW¡mc\pw hne IÂ]n¡Ww. aX]camb aptäfn AhtcmSp \Sp apimhd hfsc hepXmWv. hnhcapÅhcpw CÃmhcpw XpeyamtWm F hnip JpÀBs tNmZyhpw \nfn \nv Úm\nIsf A\pkcn¡Wsa BÚbpw Cu Imcyw ASnhcbnSppv.

 

ibvJp_ÀdpIv

ibvJp_ÀdpIv F t]cn Hcp hn`mKs Nne ]WvvVnXmÀ ]cnNbsSpnbXp ImWmw. X_ÀdpIv F ]Zns AÀYw "]pWyw sImÅÂ' FmWv. P\Ä¡p _dIXn\p thn \nesImÅp hynXzfmWnhÀ.  ibvJp CÀimZv F t]cnepw ChÀ AdnbsSmdpv.  CÀimZv F ]Zw sImÀYam¡pXv kmÀKZÀi\amWv. Cu ibvJns ZuXyw injymÀ¡p {]tXyI ZnIvdpIfpw aäpw ]Tnn¡pIbpw Ah sNmÃm CPmkXv (A\phmZw) \ÂIpIbpw \à D]tZiÄ \ÂIpIbpamWv.

ibvJp CÀimZv Hcn¡epw XzcoJXns ibvJmIm tbmKy\Ã. AXn Ipd ª ]Zhn DÅ Hcp \maam{X Kpcphmbncn¡pw. XzcoJXns ]npSÀbpsS t] cn kXyhnizmknIÄ¡v Bizmkw ]Icpp FXp am{XamWv Ctlns {]m[m\yw. AtX kabw CbmÄ NnÃd¡mc\mIm\pw ]mSnÃ.

ibvJp CÀimZn\pw  ]WvVnXmÀ ]e \n_Ô\Ifpw ]dªXp ImWmw. AÊbv hÊpepIv F {KÙnse ]cmaÀiw ImWpI: ""kplrt, Adnªp sImÄI. ibvJp CÀimZv XnIª ]WvVnX\mIWw. apcoZn\v BhiyamIp, IÀaimkv{XaS¡apÅ AXymhiy Imcyfn AhKmlw Dmbncn¡Ww. kap{Z kam\amb Zo\oÚm\w thWsanÃ. Fnepw apcoZns kwibÄ ¡p \nhmcWw \ÂIm Ignhp thWw. FÃmän\pw ]pdsa apcoZns am\knI {]iv\fpw N]eXIfpw Ahbv¡pÅ ]cnlmcfpw {Klnncn¡Ww'' (130, 131).

apIfn ]dªX\pkcnp ibvJp_ÀdpImh Xs {iaIcamsWp hcpp. C¡mep XzcoJXns t]cn {]kncmb henb almmÀ Xs Cu ]Zhn AhImisSWsanÃ. Hcp Imcyw ASnhcbnSmhpXmWv. XÀ_nbXns bpKw Ahkm\nnpw temIp \ne\n¡ppshp ]dbp kXyamb XzcoJXpIÄ FÃmw Xs kzoIcnp hcpXp X_ÀdpIns \n_Ô\Ifpw \nbafpw H ibvJpamscbmWv.  AXn\ImWp IÅ\mWbÄ tNt¡dnbncn¡pXv. AXpsImp {]m]vXcmb ]WvVnXmcpsS Icfn \nÃmsX XzcoJX[njvTnX X_ÀdpIv kzoIcn¡mhpXÃ.

ibvJp CÀimZv apcoZpIÄ¡p amXrIbpw amÀKZÀinbpambnmWp \nesImtÅXv. bYmÀYn ]ctemI ]WvVnXs ZuXyamWv AbmÄ \nÀhln¡pXv. AXn\v Hcp {]tXyI XzcoJXns ]ccmKX ImÀ¡iyfpw \nÀ_Ôfpw \Sn hcpntb¡mhpXmWv. Fmbncpmepw cp ImcyÄ ASnØm\ambn ImWWw. Hp GXp \nÀ_Ôfpw \nbafpw icoA[njvTnXamIWw. cmatXv ]mWvVnXyhpw AXns ASbmfhpw DmhpIbpw thWw.

ibvJp CÀimZv apcoZpIÄ¡p \ÂInhcp ZnIvdpIÄ Xncp\_n(kz) ]Tnnhtbm ]TnnXns ]mÝmen hcphtbm Bbncn¡Ww. AÃmsX kzw XÂ]cynsbpw CObpsSbpw ]n_em ]WnXpm¡nbh BIcpXv. kXyamb XzcoJXns ]mXbn kcn almmÀ¡p am{Xta kXyn CPmkn\p km[n¡q. Ac¡mcn \np Inp AZvImdpIÄ PohnXn amäÄ hcpm\pw DXIpw.

ibvJp CÀimZpamÀ C¡mep hfsc IqSpXepmImsap hnizkn¡pXpw A_amWv.  Ahcpw \maam{XamsWXmWp kXyw. t]cpIfn am{XamWv A[nIhpw Pohn¡pXv. A]qÀhfn A]qÀhamtb bYmÀY KpW hntijÄ DÅhÀ ImWq. 

 

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