atäXp cwKhpw t

XÀ_nbXpw XzcoJXpw

 

XzcoJns ey{]m]vXn¡pÅ D]m[nbmIpp XÀ_nbXv. Gsd NÀ sN¿sXpw hmZhnhmZÄ \ne\n¡pXpamb Hcp BibamWnXv.

XÀ_nbns hnh Bßob inWamWv. CXp XzcoJXn IÀ¡ihpw \nbXhpamb cq]n \Snem¡Ww. s]mXpsh PohnXn XÀ_nbv A\nhmcyamWv.  hyn hnipn¡v DNnXamb amÀKanXmWv.  XÀ_nbns\ hymJym\n¡sh C_vcokv ]dbpXp ImWpI:

""XÀ_nbXv sImpÅ eyw, tZlnsb sXfnabpäXm¡epw ]cnipam¡epamWv. tZls _m[n¡p tOXIfn \npÅ Cu ipoIcWm clkym\p`hÄ DÄs¡mÅm ]mIw Inpw. CXp km[yamIWsan sXämb _Ôfn \npw CcpmÀ ØnXnIfn \npw tZls AIän \ndpm km[nt¡Xpv'' (InXm_pÂC_vcokv 208).

XÀ_nbXn\p ]dª Cu \nÀhN\n \npw CXp kmÀh{XnIambpw {]mtbmKnIamtI PohnX ZÀi\amsWp a\Ênem¡mhpXmWv. icoAv XÀ_nbns amÀK tcJIfmsWp CXp shp \ap¡p ]dbmw.  \nkvImcw, t\mv XpSnb IÀasfÃmw Xs DXamb XÀ_nbXns\ kzmwioIcnhbmWv.

B[ymß Úm\nIÄ XÀ_nbns\ cmbn hnebncpnbnpv. Hv {]IrXnZ amIpp.  C_vcokns hcnIÄ ImWpI:

""XÀ_nbns `mKamb sXfnw NnetmÄ ASnØm\]cambn {]IrXn¡pw BImhpXmWv.  CS\ne¡mc\nÃmsX AÃmlp t\cnp \Sp ipoIcWamIpp CXv. Cu XÀ_nbns hm¡Ä "Da Ime¡mÀ' F Ncn{X JymXn¡p ImcW¡mcmb BZys aqp \qämn Pohn almmcmIpp.  C¡mes P\Ä kXyhpambn At`Zyamb _Ôw ]peÀpIbpw kXyns ta am{Xw {]tNmZnXcmhpIbpw sNbvXp. AhcpsS Dd¡hpw DWÀbpw AS¡hpw A\¡hpw bmYmÀYyn am{Xw _ÔnXambncpp.  AXpt]mse, AÃmlphns\ sImpw Ahs dkqens\ sImpw _ÔnXambncpp AhcpsS PohnXw.  A¡mcWm AÃmlphnsbpw dkqensbpw s]mcpw kmIZn¡pXn AhÀ hnPbn¡pIbpw sNbvXp. As\bmWv Ahcn \ s]cpXpw hnÚm\ns Zo]w sXfnªXpw.  CPvXnlmZns AXypX ]Zhn hsc {]m]n¡pXn AhÀ¡v A`qX]qÀhamb aptäapmbXmbn Ncn{Xw kmysSppp. AXpsImv C¡mep XÀ_nbXn\p km{ZmbnIamb cq]`mhÄ Bhiyambn hnÃ. AtXkabw Kpcpkmn[yhpw \nÀtihpw am{Xw Ahcn kmÀnte¡pÅ IpXnp Nmapm¡pw'' (InXm_p C_vcokv: 207, 208).

Xs sXmSp Ime¡mÀ F ]cnKW\bn BZys aqp \qämpImsc \_n(kz) alXzsSpnbXp {]knamWv. Ahcn \nmWv Ckvemans X\Xmb coXnbpw kz`mhhpw temIn\p e`n¡pXv. aZvl_ns hyhØm]nXamb cq]oIcW Imeambncpp AXv.  Cu Imebfhnse XÀ_nbXv kmÀh{XnIambncppshmWp ta ]dªXn \npw a\ÊnemIpXv. CSbmf\nà Fp ]dªXns s]mcpÄ Hcp ibvJns CSs]S ]n¡mes t]mse Bhiyambnà F AÀYnemWv.  AtX kabw Xncp\_n(kz) {]kcnn XÀ_nbXns {]` iambn Xs A¡mefn \ne\nncpp.  ]n¡mev B {]`bv¡p a hp.  \_n(kz)bpsS {]Jym]\n \npXs AXp hyambncpp.  JbvdpÂJpdq þ \à Ime¡mÀ F XfpsS hninjvTsSp Imemcn \ Ipdbpsap kqNnnp. CXns ASnØm\nemWp XÀ _nbns cmas C\s BßÚm\nIÄ ØncoIcn¡pXv. C_vcokv XpScpp:

"XÀ_nbXv NnetmÄ Hcp ibvJns CSs]S apJmncw BImhpXmWv. tZlns AhnlnX _ÔÄ Adpp amäm Cu B[ymß Kpcp CSbmf\mbn \n¡pp. Cu XÀ_nbXv kwPmXambXp t{ijvT ImeÄ¡p tijamWv.  t{ijvT Imen\p ]ndsI a\pjycpsS BßobmhØ tamiamIm\pw _pn Zpbmho _Ôn Ipcpm\pw XpSn.  COIfpsS k^eoIcWhpw `uXnIm\p`qXnIfpsS ]qÀoIcWhpambnoÀp ]noSv P\fpsS Nn. Cu Ln cwKp h ibvJpamÀ P\fpsS hnImc hnNmcÄ Xncndnªp tbmPnv Bßob amÀKÄ ]dªp sImSp¡pIbmbncpp. XZzmc AhÀ Bß clkys GsäSp¡m ]mIshcmbn hp'' (C_vcokv: 208).

 

FXÀ_nbXns C\Ä

Imes ASnØm\am¡n XÀ_nbXns\ thÀXncnXmWv CXphsc ]dªXv. Fm Cu hnjbIambpÅ ]T\n {][m\ambXmWp XÀ_nbXn\p B[ym ß Kpcp¡Ä kzoIcn amÀKÄ B[mcam¡nbpÅ asämcp hn`P\w. Cu hn`P\ns ASnd XÀ_nbXn\p t\XrXzw \ÂIp Kpcphns Bßob inbpw ]ZhnbpamWv. aqp hn[n Cu ]cnKW\ shpÅ XÀ_nbXns\ a\Ênem¡mhpXmWv. HmatXv XnIpw km[mcWhpw kmÀh{XnIhpamb XÀ_nbXmIpp. `mjm]cambXpw AtX kabw ASnØm\]chpamb Cu XÀ_nbXns\ kuIcyn\p XÀ_nbXpAveow'' Fp hnfn¡mhpXmWv.  "ibvJpAveow' F kwÚbn \nmWv CXns\ \mw {Klnt¡Xv.  km[m cWKXnbn idC¿mb AdnhpIÄ ]IÀp \ÂIpIbpw \pIÀsSp¡pIbpw sN¿p _mlyamb coXnbmWv CXp sImv AÀYam¡pXv. aX hnÚm\ kmZ\w F Cu Ln\v A\Â]amb {]m[m\yw B[ymß kcWnbn Dv. hnÚm\ns {]m[m\ys alXzsSpp Htsd NÀIÄ Camw KÊmen(d)s\ t]msebpÅ B[ymß Kpcp¡mÀ AhXcnnXp ImWmw. XzcoJXns ibvJmÀ kcWn¡v DuSpw ]mhpw \ÂIpXp hnÚm\neqsSbmWv. ibvJv Poem\n(d) hyhØm]nXamb Zo\o hnZy \pIcm _KvZmZv hsc XmnbXp Ncn{X {]knamWtÃm. ]WvVnX\pw ]TnXmhn\pw DXamb ]Zhn Dspw AhÀ¡v B_nZns\ shÃm ]äpsapw JpÀB\pw lZokpw ]Tnn¡ppv. XzcoJXns hgnbnte¡p shfnw ]Icp ibvJv kbv\po aJvZqw (d)s AZvInbmC CXp kw_Ôambn Hcp A[ymbw Xs tNÀXp {]kvXmhyamWv.

Fspw \ne\nÂtI XÀ_nbns ]mXbpw coXnbpamWv XAÃpapw XAv eoapw. Cu XÀ_nbXnÃmsX t]mIpXpw CXns alXzw ImWmsX t]mIpXpw A]ISÄ hcppw. Zo\ns Xs Poh \jvSamIm\pw XzcoJXnsbpw XÀ_nbXnsbpw t]cn AcmPIXzapmIm\pw CXp ImcWamIpXmWv.

XÀ_nbXn cmatXp Akm[mcWambXpw AtX kabw thKn km[yamIpXpamWv. XÀ_nbXpÀJn¿: Fp kuIcyn\p CXns\ ]cnNbsSpmw. ibvJpÀJnb:Xns kwkvIcW coXnbmIpp Cu XÀ_nbXns B[mcw. B[ymß Kpcp Xs apn hcp Bßob Imwnsb ]cnhÀ\ hnt[bam¡p AÛpXamIpp CXv. HuenbmC\p knamIp IdmaXns `mKambnmWv CXp km[yamIpXv. IdmaXpIÄ Xncp\_n(kz)bpsS apAvPnkXns ]n_ememWp {]ISamIpXv. Xs apn Fnb ]e A[amscbpw \_n(kz) AXypXamb Bßob hebn FnXmbn Ncn{Xw kmysSpppv. DaÀ(d) \_n(kz)bpsS XÀJnbXneqsS kmÀK {]m]vX\mbXv CXn\v DZmlcWamWv. \_n(kz)sb shns¡mesSpm ]pds B t]m¡ncnsb \nanjt\cw sImv Ckvemans apWntmcmfnbm¡m \_n(kz)¡p km[np. AhnsS Bßob inWn\p \o ImesaSpt¡Xmbn hnÃ. asämcp DZmlcWamWp bamam N{IhÀnbmbncp kpamaXp_v DkmÂ(d)sXv. \_n(kz)sb sImÃpsap {]Jym]n¡pIbpw \qdpIW¡n\p kzlm_ns\ sImesSppIbpw sNbvX kpamabpsS cn\p hnebnsÃp \_n  (kz) {]Jym]nncpp. Ahkm\w kzlm_nbpsS sIWnbn s] kpama Xncp\_n(kz)bpsS klhÀXnXzm BsI amdpIbpw IAv_mebn sNp kss[cyw Ckvemans XÂ_nbXv apg¡pIbpw sNbvXp. Ccw kw`hÄ Xncp\_n(kz)bpsS PohnXn \nch[n Dv.  HcÀYn \_n(kz)bpsS PohnXnse kmÀh{XnI XÀ_nbXmbn CXns\ IW¡m¡mhpXmWv.

Xncp\_n(kz)bn \npÅ ]npSÀ Adnbs ]e Kpcp¡mcpw Cu XÀ_nbXv {]mhÀnIam¡nbXmbn Ncn{Xw ]dbpp. Ahcn kp{]kn\mbncpp ibvJv aplvbno A_vZpÂJmZnÀ AÂPoem\n(J.kn). alm Xs kw`h _lpeamb sXmqdp sImÃs PohnXn XÀJnbXne[njvTnX XÀ_nbXv \mbn Xs \nÀhNnXn\p tcJIfpv. Jmfn aplZv(d) cNn aplvbno amebnse GXm\pw hcnIÄ ImWpI:

""AhÀ ssI ]nSnXn sXmw t]À Atmsf,

BImihpw aäpw ]esXÃmw ItmhÀ.''

ibvJhÀIfpsS ssI]nSnp _bvAXp sNbvX NneÀ B \nanjw Xs BßobXbpsS kmbqPyw A\p`hnp Fs{X ChnsS kqNnn¡pXv. BImihpw aäpw Fp ]cmaÀinncn¡pXp XÀ_nbXv InptmÄ {]ISamIp DXnsb Ipdnp XsbmWv. aplvbno amebpsS B[mc {KÙamb _lvPXpÂAkvdmdn \npw aäpw CXp {Kln¡mhpXmWv.

""Ahscmv \mbn Hcp t\m¡v t\m¡pInÂ,

AXn\mse henb \nesb sImSptmhÀ.''

ibvJhÀIfpsS Hä t\mm Xs DXÄ IcKXamIpsamWv Cu ]dªncn¡pXv. ibvJv Aen¿pÂloXn(d) F Poem\n kaImenI ]dbpp: ""Hcp Znhkw ibvJv Poem\n(d) Fgp]tXmfw t]cpsS Xebn ssIshp A\p{Klnp.  AhÀ¡p apcoZv ]w \ÂIn. AtmÄ AtX \nanjn Xs B Fgp]Xp t]À¡pw AXnalmb t\w Inn'' (_lvP: 100).

asämcp hcn ImWpI:

""t_op hsÃmcphkvXps\ t\m¡pInÂ,

t_nb hw AXns\ B¡ptmhÀ.''

""\nes\ sImSpm\pw \nes\ Ifhm\pw,

\mb AhÀ¡\phmZw sImSptmhÀ''

ibvJns Xncpt\mm Xs AÛpXÄ kw`hn¡psapw Bßob ]Z hnIÄ \ÂIp Imcyn ibvJhÀIsf AÃmlp A\phmZw \ÂIn BZcnncn¡ppshpas{X Cu ]dªXns s]mcpÄ.

ibvJv A_pÂlk _KvZmZn(d) ]dª asämcp kw`hnÂ, Cdm\nse laZm {]hniybn s] \plm_n shv Hcn¡Â Hcp {IkvXy kplrv ibv Jn\p apn hp Ckvemw kzoIcnXpw A\cw AtX kZÊn shp Xs ibvJns Xocpam\m HuenbmCs AÐmepIfn Hcp AwKambn AbmÄ ¡p ]w InnbXpw ImWmhpXmWv. _lvPXpÂAkvdmdns 70, 71 ]pdfnemWv Cu Ncn{XapÅXv. CXp icnshpsImp Jmfzn aplZv (d) ]dbpp:

""AÄ Ipew ]ps¡ ]pXnb Ckvemans\,

A_vZmemcm¡n IÂnp shtmhÀ.''

aplvbno ibvJns PohnXnse t]mse cn^mCu ibvJns PohnXnepw Ccw kw`hÄ \ap¡p Ismw.  DZmlcWn\v cn^mCu amebnse Hcp hcn ImWpI:

""Xcw sI hm¡v ^pJdm¡Ä sNmsc,

Xes\ Xpdv apcoZm¡n hntmhÀ''.

ibvJpamcpsS Cu inWw {]mamWnIhpw Ncn{X]chpambn kXykÔamsWXn kwibn\p ]gpXnÃ. Fs CjvS Zmks Ipw ImXpw I¿psams¡ Rm\mIpsapw Ah kXyw sNbvXp ]dbp Imcys Rm hmkvXham¡psapw AÃmlp Xs hm¡p XXmWv.

 

FXÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\w

XÀ_nbXv AXns kz`mhw t\m¡n aqm¡n Xncn¡msap \mw ]dªp. Ahbn cs ]cmaÀin¡pIbpw sNbvXp. aqmaXp XzcoJXn ]dbp XÀ_nbXmIpp. ibvJpÀ_nbXns ZuXyambn hcp Cu XÀ_nbXmWp {][m\ambnpÅXv. CXns t]cnemWv hnhmZÄ DSseSpp ImWpXpw. XzcoJXv NqjIcpsS apJyamb ]nSnhÅn Cu XÀ_nbXmIpp. AtX kabw XzcoJXns aÀahpw CXp XsbmWv. BZys csns Imcyn sXäncnn¡Â km[yaÃ. HatXp kmÀh{XnIambXn\m \maam{Xambn am{Xta AXns\ XÀ_nbXv Fp ]dbq Fp \ymboIcn¡mw. cmaXp ]dª "XÀJnbXv' AhImisSptSv AÛpXIcamb amäÄ Zp{XKXnbn {]ISnn¡m IgnbWw. AXpIgnbmXn\m Atcnepw hymPÄ IpdhmWv.

Cu teJ\ns XpS¡n \mw \nÀhNn XÀ_nbXmWp NÀm {][m\amb aqmas C\w.  {Iam\pKXambn apcoZns\ ]cncnv DX Øm\sn¡pXmWv Cu XÀ_nbXns coXn. CXp ]qÀhoIambn Xs henb Afhn \ne\nncpXmbn Ncn{Xw ]dbpp. P\eÄ ]qÀhImev Cu XÀ_nbXns ^ew A\p`hnnpv. Hcp ibvJns inWhpw amÀKZÀi\hpamWnXv.  {]tXyI coXnbnepÅ Cu XÀ_nbXns Imew XpSpXp lnPvd:bpsS aqp \qämpIÄ ]nn tijamsWp t\cs kqNnnp. ]n¡mev Cu XÀ_nbXpw Xntcm`hnpshmWp ]WvVnX aXw. AXn\p \ymbfpw AhÀ \ncnbXmbn ImWmw.

AÂlfzvdansb Dcnp Xs JhmCZn ibvJv AlvaZv kpdqJv(d)  kmtXnImÀYnepÅ XÀ_nbXv Aäpt]mbncn¡pXmbn {]Jym]nnpv. AÂC_vco kv 207þmas t]Pn Cu ]cmaÀiw ImWmw.

XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\w \SXmbn AlvaZv kpdqJv ]dbp Imew lnPvd: 824 BWv. CXv lnPvd: 1427 BWv. As\ hcptmÄ Bdp \qämn\pdw XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\w \SXmbn hcpp. XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\w \SXmbn ]WvVnXmÀ hyam¡nbXp kmZp apkvenans 2þmw hmfyw 385þmas t]Pn epw ImWmw.

kmtXnI XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\n\p Ncn{X]camb ImcWÄ ]eXpv. HmatXp XÀ_nbXn\v AhImis almßm¡Ä Ipdªp hXmWv. Cu hkvXpX \ntj[n¡pXn AÀYanÃ. \qämpIfpsS sshhn[yn\\pkrXambn aX]cambn \S¡p amäpIpdhv \_n(kz)Xs apdnbnp \ÂInbXmWv. \ÃhÀ \ÃhÀ \mSp \opsapw aqeyw ]ngnªpamänb NnIÄ am{Xw Ahtijn¡p ØnXn hcpsapw Htsd lZokpIfneqsS \_n(kz) ]TnnXp Im Wmw. kzm`mhnIamb Cu ]cnWmans ^eambn XÀ_nbXn\pXIp ibvJpamÀ Ipdªp hcpXn AXnitbmn¡p hIpnÃ. Camw Jpibvcn(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI:

""IqpImtc! \nÄ a\ÊncppI, AÃmlp \nÄ¡p IcpW sNmcnbs. XzcoJXns Cu KWn s] At{KkcmÀ A[nIhpw ISp Ifªncn¡pp. \psS C¡mev B Iqn Ahtijn¡pXv AhcpsS ASbmfÄ am{XamWv. "XpIÄ Im AhcpsS XpIÄ¡p Xpeyw. ]t, AIfnse XcpWnIfpsS t{Km{XÄ thsdbmsWv' Hcp Ihn ]cnX]nXp t]msebmWns IY. Cu XzcoJXn XpSÀ apdnsªp am{Xw ]dªm t]mcm, adnv kXyambpw XnckvImcw ]änsbp Xs ]dtbnbncn¡pp. kmÀK NcnXcmb ibvJpamÀ Ignªp t]mbn. Ahsc ]npSÀpw AhcpsS NcyIÄ kzmwioIcnp hncp sNdp¡mcpw Ipdªp t]mbn'' (cnkme: 2).

Camw Jpibvcn(d)s A`n{]mbn XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\ ImcWfn HmatXv AÀlXs Kpcp¡fpsS A`mhamWv. Camw JpibvcnbpsS P\\w lnPvd: 376 d_oDÂAÆ BWv. h^mXv lnPvd: 465 d_oD BJndnepw þ  lnPvd: 438þemWv Xs cN\bpsS ]qÀoIcWsav A`n{]mbapv. XzcoJXv kw_Ôambn B[nImcnIambn ]dbm AÀl F \ne¡v Camans ta {]kvXmhw A\ntj[yamIpp. alms Imev Xs XÀ_nbXn\pXIp ibvJpamÀ Ipdªp hpshn AlvaZv kpdqJns Imes A\p`hw AwKoIcnt¡Xmbn hcpp.

 

FXntcm[m\ns s]mcpÄ

XÀ_nbXns Xntcm[m\sän ]dbptmÄ a\Ênemt¡ {][m\ hkvXpX, XÀ_nbXn\ÀlXs ibvJpamÀ Cpsn Xs AhÀ XÀ_nbXp \ndpn shncn¡pp F bYmÀYyamWv. kmtXnIamb XÀ_nbXv Ac¡mÀ amän sh¡m {][m\ ImcWw XzcoJXnse hymPmcpsS hym]\amIpp. "C_vcokv' ]dbpXp ImWpI:

""XÀ_nbXns bpKw Ignªp \osh kXyhpw AkXyhpw, Ccppw shfnhpw Xn ssItImÀ¡p ZpchØ hp. AtXmsS IÅ\mWbÄ XÄ ¡p apn hcphsc XÀ_nbsX t]cn ssIImcyw sN¿m XpSn. sXäm b DtiytmsSbpw kXyhncpamb eytmsSbpw P\tfmSv GImX sImpw \maP]w sImpsams¡ AhÀ IÂ]np t]mp. Cu Xmtmnw ibvJv kpdqJns Imev hym]Iambncpp. AXp {Kln ibvJpamÀ ]mhs P\sf cn¡m IÅ \mWbÄ ISp Ibdnb ]ckyamb XÀ_nbXv taJe Dt]n¡Wsap \nÀtZin¡pIbmbncpp'' (C_vcokv: 208).

hn{ipX\mb AlvaZv tImb imenbmXn(d) ]dbpXp ImWpI: ""XÀ_nbXv DbÀ pshp ]dbpXp XÀ_nbXn\pXIp kqÀW ibvJpamÀ ]sä CÃmXmbXp sImÃ. Ac¡mÀ amdnadbpIbpw IÅibvJpamcpsS cwK{]thim ImcyÄ AhXmfnemIpIbpw sNbvXXn\memWv'' (AÂ^XmhÂAkvlcn¿: 1/55).

AlvaZv kpdqJv(d)s Cu {]Jym]\s kaImeo\tcm ]n¡me¡mtcm JÞnXmbn ImWpnÃ. AXpsImp XzcoJXns Imcyn kwkmcn¡m AÀlXshÀ Cu hnjbn GtIm]nXcmsWp hp. C_vcokn kpdqJns {]kvXmhs \ymboIcn¡pXmWp \mw ImWpXv. XÀ_nbXns Imcynse kpdqJn hoWw HäsXmsW PÂ]\w sNhnsImSp¡mhpXsÃp CtXmsS hyambn. ]n¡mep tijnpshp ]dbp XÀ_nbXv kmtXnImÀYnepÅXsÃpw {Kmlyambn.

 

F^bvfpÂ_dImv

kmtXnI XÀ_nbXpambn _Ôsp {]NmcnepÅ Hcp kwÚbmWp ^bv fp _dImXv. A\p{KlfpsS \nthiamWv CXpsImv AÀYam¡pXv. Hcp kqÀW Kpcphn \np XÀ_nbXv e`n¡Â ]e hn[amImw. _mlyhpw {]IShpambnpÅXmWv Hv. t\cnp Xs apcoZns\ Ipw kwhZnpw BßobX ]IÀpsImSp¡m ibvJv kabw ImWp ssienbmWnXv.

cmasXn ibvJns {]IShpw _mlyhpamb _ÔsS DmInÃ. ibvJns\ `uXnI Xen ImWmsX ImehnXymkÄ¡XoXambpÅ in Ww \S¡pp. ibvJpw apcoZpw Htc Ime¡mcmbncns¡ Xs Hcn¡epw t\À¡mgvN¡hkcw InmsX \S¡p XÀ_nbXpw Cu Iqn s]XmWv. \_n(kz) XÄ DhbvkpÂJd\n(d)s\ XÀ_nbv sNbvXXpw PAv^dpÊzmZnJv(d) A_qbkoZp _nkvXzman(d)s\ XÀ_nbv sNbvXXpw CXn\pZmlcWamWv. \_n    (kz) XÄ Xs Imem\cw \SnbXpw \SnhcpXpamb XÀ_nbXpIÄ Kpcphpw injy\pw XnepÅ ImehyXymkÄ¡XoXamb XÀ_nbXn\pZmlcWamWv. kz]v\w apJmncapÅXmWp asämcp XÀ_nbXv. Htc Ime¡mcmbncns¡ Xs ]ckv]cw ImWmsX \S¡pXpw AXpt]mse kz]v\neqsS \S¡pXpamb XÀ_obXpIsf kmtXnI `mjbn "^bvfzpÂ_dImXv' FmWp ]dbpI. XÀ_nbXv Fp ]dbmdnÃ.

XÀ_nbXns KWn {]knamb asämmWv XÀ_nbXpÀdqlv. Bßmhns CSs]S hgn \S¡p Bßob inWamWnXv. Xncp\_n(kz) aäpÅ \_namsc XÀ_nbXv sNbvXXv CÆn[amsWp ]dbsSpp(X^vcolpÂJzmXznÀ:5, 6).

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